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Kompleks Tiga Tujuh No. 48
10 December 2016
Jln. Rumah Baru No. 13
Hi Didi. What's up? I am now inviting you to attend our Christmas party in my house in Kompleks Anggur. I'll be having the celebration on the 23rd of December 2016 at 12 p.m.
Even though you don’t celebrate Christmas, I would ask you to join the fun as you have been a very special relative to us. Please bring with you your siblings because my sister has prepared special activities and games. And you must miss my father's cooking. He'll cook again this year.
See you there
Should States Ban Junk Food in Schools?
It may make sense for a school board to ban junk food in some cases, but there are several issues that should be considered.
To begin with, there is the problem of defining junk food. Are we talking about potato chips, soda, and pastries? What about fried chicken fingers, cheeseburgers, and pizza-foods many school cafeterias serve?
Second, the American education system is designed to give communities control over their schools through local school boards. This principle Of local control lies at the root of our democracy. We believe that locally elected school board members are in the best position to make policy decisions that reflect the opinions and needs of their individual communities. Any decisions about what is sold in school vending machines should be determined at this level.
Third, an important part of education is learning to make good choices. An across-the-board junk-food ban does not teach young people how to make healthy choices, it simply removes some of their options.
Fourth, improving what we teach about nutrition and requiring more physical activity are better ways to approach obesity than imposing statewide food bans.
Let me be clear: We believe that childhood obesity is a very serious issue, and principals, teacher, parents, students, and school boards should be doing their part to address this situation. But banning junk food without other strategies and local decision-making is a superficial remedy that dilutes personal and local responsibilities.
The followings are the supporting statements by the author, EXCEPT …
(A) banning junk food does not educate students to make food decisions
(B) refining the method of teaching nutrition and physical education is more effective to tackle obesity than banning junk food
(C) separating junk food from non junk food is not an easy task
(D) childhood obesity is a very serious issue
(E) decisions to ban junk food should be determined at local levels, not statewide levels
Which is true according to the text?
(A) there are reasonable cases that a school board may impose junk food ban
(B) junk food bans must be avoided at all cost
(C) childhood obesity is not very harmful
(D) if schools ban junk food, their students tend to become good decision makers
(E) each government is supposed to make policy decisions, including the decision to ban junk food at schools
The underlined word “imposing” (Paragraph 5) is mostly similar to …
“We believe that childhood obesity is a very serious issue, and principals, teachers, parents, students, and school boards should be doing their part to address this situation.” (par. 6)
Why would the author state this information?
(A) to compare the responsibilities of principals, teachers, parents, students, and school boards regarding junk food bans
(B) to delegate the problem to principals, teachers, parents, students, and school boards
(C) to illustrate his attitude toward junk food bans
(D) to emphasize his agreement to junk food bans
(E) to show that despite the author’s disagreement to statewide junk food ban, he still shares concern regarding junk food consumption
Text taken from: Brain, The Complete Mind by Michael Sweeney, pp. 265
Learning disabilities result from faulty perception, processing, and communication of information within the brain. Pediatricians can supply charts of developmental milestones, allowing parents to compare their children with norms in major stages of growth.
Learning disabilities include: auditory processing disorder, which makes it difficult to distinguish between sounds, and visual processing disorder, which causes problems with reading, map interpretation, and other work requiring analysis of visual information. Dyscalculia interferes with math ability and can cause problems using money. Dysgraphia is a difficulty with writing that may include problems with handwriting, spelling, and organization of ideas. Dyslexia is a disorder of language processing. Dyspraxia or apraxia is a sensory integration disorder that interferes with motor coordination or speech. people with apraxia or dyspraxia of speech, two names for an absent or diminished speech ability, can understand what's said to them, but have trouble articulating what they want to say. The root cause isn't in the muscle of the lips or tongue but rather in the brain.
Adults can acquire either disorder through brain injury, stroke, or tumor. A form of the disorder called developmental apraxia exists from birth. Scientists believe it arises either from a problem in overall language development, or through faulty neural communication between the brain's language centers and the muscles that produce speech. The fact that children with developmental apraxia have a greater likelihood of family members with communication or learning disabilities points toward a genetic component.
In general, the text tells us about …
(A) The general information about learning disabilities
(B) The brain structure of people with learning disabilities
(C) That causes learning disabilities in children
(D) The danger of learning disabilities
(E) auditory and visual processing disorder
The underlined word “root” in the text above have similar meaning to …
(A) the part of a plant that is usually found underground
(C) a plant
Based on text, which is wrong?
(A) someone who suffers from apraxia of speech is able to understand what is said to him/her
(B) developmental apraxia occurs from birth
(C) problems in the brain may lead to learning disabilities
(D) people who have visual processing disorder are illiterate
(E) genetic component may play a role in developmental apraxia
By Jessika Toothman.
Colossal explosions split the sky, tsunamis crash over major metropolises, meteorites plough through mountain ranges, life-size dinosaurs stomp around primordial forests-and let’s not even get into all the creative ways the White House has been cinematically smashed up years.
These sorts of spectacular special effects can boggle the mind, both in terms of how extraordinary they are visually, as well as how much they reportedly cost to produce. Hollywood blockbusters like the “Pirates of Caribbean” and “Spider-Man” trilogies are packed with shocking special effects that push their budgets way up into the hundreds of millions, and somebody out there has to be footing the bill.
There are lots of readily apparent ways that blockbusters make money. When people go see a movie in theaters, rent it when its available for home viewing, buy the DVD or purchase the soundtrack, the studio responsible gets a percentage of the proceeds. It also collects from television distribution contracts on various domestic and foreign TV outlets, from to basic cable and free networks to satellite stations. But keep in mind the percentage aspect-box-office numbers and the rest of these revenues are split up among different vested parties-like the star, for instance-and don‘t reflect a complete payback to studio’s blockbuster budget. Plus, post-theater success often hinges at least in part on box-office turnout, adding another complication to the equation.
Depending on the film, money can also sometimes be made through means like merchandising and licensing contract. Studios typically get a guaranteed dollar amount, plus royalties. Paying for a Hollywood blockbuster means more than covering the cost of actually producing the movie, though. Marketing is another big slice of the budget, for example, and since box office sales alone usually aren't enough to cover even the cost of advertising, it's another reason why additional funding vehicles are so important.
But apart from these obvious, and primarily post-production, methods for making sure blockbuster movies turn a profit, behind-the-scenes systems can help get much of the funding necessary for covering the bottom line in place ahead of time.
Hollywood blockbusters might tend to take root in Los Angeles, but when it comes to raising the funds needed to make a movie, the shoots spread across the world. Laws and loopholes vary greatly from country to country, and successful executive producers are savvy when it comes to digging up the best deals.
One good example can be found in Germany’s tax code: Potential German investors looking to finagle their finances can invest in a future blockbuster and take the related tax deduction right away, thus postponing burdensome taxes for a later date. They buy the movie's copyright and instantly lease it back to the Hollywood studio at the helm. The participating studio also pays the German investors a small advance on the movie, which qualifies as profit and satisfies the other side of the tax law.
Then all sorts of swapping follow. For example, the German investors will typically sign contract agreements that limit their involvement to token (and transitory) ownership, for which they pony up around 10 percent at the end of the day. Eventually the rights to the movie return to the studio in full, and the studio takes that profit right off its bottom line. Best of all, the films aren't required to be shot in Germany or employ any Germans, as is dictated by some countries' tax laws, so it still works for movies that might otherwise be inconvenienced by strict location requirements.
Another way studios can defray their costs is through strategic product placement. We're not talking about an obvious display of commercial wares like in the classic “Wayne’s World” vignette, but rather the subtle introduction of a specific product into an applicable spot in a movie. Successful product placement doesn't come off over-the-top, instead it aims to blend the product seamlessly into the movie's plot. Featured companies sometimes offer free products and services for the cast and crew in return, but nowadays they're increasingly pitching in to the film's marketing expenses-usually with the caveat that they get an in the ads and trailers for the film, of course.
And these are just two examples. Myriad methods are available to movie insiders and intrepid entrepreneurs looking to be a part of the next big blockbuster hit. Even independent investors looking to score some cash are getting in on the action. Most use business smarts they picked up in other industries to mold strategies that have the potential to pay off big keeping in mind that backing movies is always something of a gamble.
What is the purpose of paragraph 1 in the text above?
(A) to show how the Hollywood blockbusters are financed
(B) to mention all the natural disasters that happened in the past in Los Angeles
(C) to give introduction to typical scenes in Hollywood blockbusters
(D) to exemplify the typical scenes from Hollywood blockbusters that are expensive
(E) to state the importance of white house in Hollywood blockbusters
What is the main topic of the passage?
(A) How people create special effects in Hollywood blockbusters
(B) How the Hollywood blockbusters are financed
(C) What makes Hollywood actors stay wealthy
(D) How Hollywood produces great movies
(E) Why Hollywood create good movie
Which one is implied in the text?
(A) some ways of financing Hollywood are obvious
(B) normally, box office sales are not enough to cover the advertising cost
(C) The Germans always invest in Hollywood blockbusters because of their tax system
(D) Wayne's World is an example of unsuccessful product placement
(E) casino industry finances Hollywood blockbusters
The followings may be the financing sources of Hollywood blockbusters, EXCEPT …
(A) spectacular special effects
(B) independent investors
(C) companies’ product placement
(D) merchandising contracts
(E) TV distribution contracts