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Ancient Mars harbored long-lasting lakes, boosting the odds that life could have existed on the Red Planet billions of years ago, a new study suggests.
A series of freshwater lakes within Mars' 96-mile-wide (154 kilometers) Gale Crater likely persisted for hundreds or thousands of years at a time, and perhaps even longer, according to the new study, which is based on observations made by NASA's 1-ton Curiosity rover.
While these individual lakes were apparently transient–it means drying out and filling up repeatedly over time–the overall lake-and-stream system inside Gale Crater existed for a quite a long time, researchers said.
"Even if the lake goes away, there's still going to be a groundwater table,"study lead author John Grotzinger, of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, told Space.com.
"If life had evolved on Mars, you now have a habitat which is perpetually wet that would allow microbes to be sustained," added Grotzinger, a Curiosity team member who previously served as project scientist on the $2.5 billion mission. "Those environments would have existed probably for millions, if not tens of millions of years throughout the rocks that we see."
The underlined “transient” in paragraph 3 most likely means …
(B) free from moisture
Which one is wrong according to the text?
(A) it is probable that there was freshwater under ancient Mars’ Gale Crater
(B) ancient Mars’ Gale Crater might have had lakes underneath
(C) the constantly wet habitat in the Gale Crater might support the life of microbes
(D) each lake within the Gale Crater was 154 kilometers in width
(E) when the lakes dry out within the Gale Crater, a researcher thinks that there is another source of water
The best title for the passage is …
(A) The Gale Crater
(B) Life Could Have Existed in Mars
(C) NASA’s Curiosity Rover
(D) How Old is Mars?
(E) Human Quests for Freshwater
L.L Zamenhof would later say that he had dreamed of a world language since he was a child. At first he considered a revival of Latin, but after learning it in school he decided it was too complicated to be a common means of international communication. When he learned English, he realized that verb conjugations were unnecessary, and that grammatical systems could be much simpler than he had expected. He still had the problem of memorizing a large vocabulary, until he noticed two Russian signs labeled Швейцарская – from швейцар, which means porter’s house and porter, respectively – and Кондитерская – from кондитер, which means a confectioner’s shop and confectioner, respectively. He then realized that a judicious use of affixes could greatly decrease the number of root words needed for communication. He chose to take his vocabulary from Romance and Germanic, the languages that were most widely taught in schools around the world and would therefore be recognizable to the largest number of people.
Zamenhof taught an early version of the language to his high-school classmates. Then, for several years, he worked on translations and poetry to refine his creation. In 1895 he wrote, "I worked for six years perfecting and testing the language, even though it had seemed to me in 1878 that it was already completely ready." When he was ready to publish, the Czarist censors would not allow it. Hampered, he spent his time in translating works such as the Bible and Shakespeare. This enforced delay led to continued improvement. In July 1887 he published his first book Unua Libro, a basic introduction to the language "Esperanto". This was essentially the language spoken today.
Which one is not true according to paragraph 2?
(A) Zamenhof created the early Esperanto in high school
(B) Zamenhof had ever worked as a translator
(C) Because of a censorship policy. Zamenhof’s publication had been delayed
(D) Esperanto is spoken today
(E) The first Zamenhof book Unua Libro has yet to be published
Why did Zamenhof decide to take his vocabulary from Romance and Germanic languages? Because …
(A) Romance and Germanic languages had difficult grammar
(B) Romance and Germanic languages had greater exposure to people
(C) Romance and Germanic languages had a lot of strong vocabulary
(D) Romance and Germanic languages had many affixes
(E) Romance and Germanic language learning were still limited
What can be inferred from paragraph 1?
(A) L.L Zemenhof thought that Latin was too complicated to use globally
(B) Latin language was not quite used by people anymore
(C) English was a global language
(D) Russian language had a larger number of root words
(E) Verb conjugations in English was already much simpler
What is the topic of the passage?
(A) the revival of Latin
(B) the early creation of Esperanto
(C) L.L Zamenhof as a child
(D) Esperanto versus English
(E) the vocabulary of Esperanto
Marie Curie was a Polish-born French scientist who, with her husband, Pierre Curie (1859-1906), was an early investigator of radioactivity. From 1896, the Curies worked together. building on the results of Henri Becquerel, who had discovered radioactivity from uranium salts. Marie Curie discovered that thorium also emits radiation and found that the mineral pitchblende was even more radioactive than could be accounted for by any uranium and thorium content. The Curies then carried out an exhaustive search and in July 1898 announced the discovery of polonium, followed in December of that year with the discovery of radium. They shared the 1903 Nobel Prize for physics with Becquerel for the discovery of radioactivity. The Curies did not participate in Becquerel’s discovery but investigated radioactivity and gave the phenomenon its name. Marie Curie went on to study the chemistry and medical applications of radium, and was awarded the 1911 Nobel Prize for chemistry in recognition of her work in isolating the pure metal.
At the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Marie Curie helped to equip ambulances with X-ray equipment and drove the ambulances to the front lines. The International Red Cross made her head of its Radiological Service. She taught medical orderlies and doctors how to use the new technique. By the late 1920s, her health began to deteriorate: continued exposure to high-energy radiation had given her leukemia. She entered a sanatorium and died on July 4, 1934.
Throughout much of her life, Marie Curie was poor, and the painstaking radium extractions were carried out in primitive conditions. The Curies refused to patent any of their discoveries, wanting them to benefit everyone freely. They used the Nobel Prize money and other financial rewards to finance further research. One of the outstanding applications of their work has been the use of radiation to treat cancer, one form of which cost Marie Curie her life.
Why didn’t the Curies patent their discoveries?
(A) they already had some money from Nobel Prize
(B) they were considered wealthy at that time
(C) they wanted their research to be used freely
(D) they were already famous
(E) Becquerel had already patented their discoveries
The phrase “the pure metal” (paragraph 1) refers to …
From the text we know the following, except …
(A) a research of the Curies was based on a Becquerel’s research
(B) Marie Curie passed away after Pierre Curie had passed away
(C) the curies had discovered polonium before radium
(D) the mineral pitchblende was more radioactive than thorium content
(E) Nobel Prize only recognized Marie Curie and Becquerel for the discovery of radioactivity
What is the best title of the passage?
(A) How Radioactivity Changed the World
(B) Science and its applications
(C) The Discoveries of Marie Curie
(D) The Competition between Marie Curie and Henri Becquerel
(E) The History of Radioactivity
The business of tennis clothes has grown astoundingly in past few years. Over $250 million is spent annually on the trapping of tennis. Apparently everyone wants to look like a pro, even though 20% of the clientele has never even played the game.
Manufacturers pay the stars lucrative fees for wearing their brands of clothes and wielding their racquets on center court. Chris Evert-Lloyd, for example, is rumored to have signed a five-year contract for $5 million with Ellesse, a producer of fancy, expensive tennis wear.
John McEnroe received a reported $600,000 for playing with a Dunlop racquet, $330,000 for sporting Tacchini clothes, and $100,000 for typing his Nike tennis shoes. Obviously, in a bad year, these stars would have made more as fashion models than as athletes.
Not only tennis players get free clothing, but also all the people involved in the game–the referees, linespeople, ball boys and girls–are living advertisements for tennis wear producers. Where, traditionally, conservative white clothing was required for the entire tennis coterie, changing times have seen a new vogue in tennis outfits. Flamboyant colors, designers' nameplates, geometric figures, and bold lines distinguish the new tennis togs from their predecessors.
A good title for this passage would be …
(A) The Stars at Play
(B) Big Business in Tennis Wear
(C) The High Cost of Playing Tennis
(D) Tennis Stars’ Flamboyant Clothes
(E) Designers and Tennis Court
It is stated that John McEnroe …
(A) wore flamboyant clothings on the court
(B) must have earned over $1 million for endorsing tennis products
(C) was a fashion model more than he was a tennis player
(D) had had a bad year in tennis competition.
(E) wore tennis clothings with geometric figures and bold lines
It can be inferred from the passage that …
(A) tennis clothing appeals only to the wealthy
(B) conservative tennis clothes don’t tend to have designer brands on it
(C) the price of tennis racquets has remained stable
(D) bright colors entice people to buy tennis wear
(E) the tennis referees may get free clothes
The author’s intention is to …
(A) explain why the cost of tennis clothes has risen
(B) defend tennis wear manufacturers from complaints about their high prices
(C) describe the means of advertising expensive tennis clothes
(D) describe the new tennis clothing
(E) explain why tennis has become a more difficult game