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- Latihan Soal
Indigenous plant and animals are few in Easter Island. At the time of European arrival, the toromiro tree was the only wild tree and the Carolina wolfberry the only wild shrub, the vegetation being ..(31).. herbaceous. The toromiro tree was overexploited by the island wood carvers, and the last local specimen died in the 1950s. ..(32).. ,the species was saved from extinction. The Norwegian Archaeological Expedition collected seeds and planted them in the Gothenburg Botanical Garden, and saplings from the garden were reintroduced to Easter Island in 1988. Today only 31 wild flowering plants, 14 ferns, and 14 mosses are reported. Grass and small ferns dominate the barren landscape, ..(33).. the boggy crater lakes are thickly covered by two imported American species, the totora reed and Polygonum acumination. A number of cultivated species of plant were also introduced partly from America and partly from Polynesia before the arrival of Europeans; of these the ..(34).. species was the sweet potato, which was the cultivated in extensive plantations and formed the staple diet. Bottle gourds, sugarcane, bananas, taro, yams, and two trees. (i.e., the Asiatic paper mulberry-and the American Triumfetta semitriloba) were of aboriginal importation, as also probably were the husk-tomato, small variety of pineapple, and the coconut.
Twelve months have passed since the adoption by UN member states of the Sendai Framework for disaster risk reduction, a 15-year plan for reducing disaster losses from man-made and natural hazards. During that period, almost 100 million people have lost their homes, their livelihoods, been displaced or suffered injury or loss because of a wide range of disasters.
Alongside the rising needs driven by climate change and one of the strongest El Nino events in 50 years, the humanitarian assistance system is under increasing strain from conflicts, which have cost countless lives and driven millions from their homes, triggering the largest forced displacement of people since the end of the Second World War.
The unprecedented storm of humanitarian need has given rise to much debate about more equitable burdensharing. But what the Sendai framework reminds us is that we need to be much more focused on reducing the humanitarian burden in the first place.
Disaster risk reduction is a philosophy for our times: it means disaster response reduction. The inaugural world humanitarian summit is recognition that we need to get smarter at how we cooperate to address humanitarian challenges while reaffirming human dignity. An essential part of this is improving how we manage disaster risk.
The adoption of the Sendai Framework, at the Third UN world conference on disaster risk reduction in Japan, marked the beginning of a momentous year in which agreement was reached on the 2030 development agenda.
The following statement are false, EXCEPT …
(A) this year people have experienced the strongest El-Nino in the last 50 years
(B) the main focus of the Sendai framework is on how to reduce the burden of donor countries
(C) people may have been displaced from where they lived due to natural disasters and conflicts
(D) risk disaster management is not an important part in dealing with humanitarian challenges
(E) it took 12 months for the countries involved to formulate the Sendai framework
What can be interred from the passage?
(A) the number of people who left their homes because of disasters or conflict is not surprising
(B) disasters addressed in Sendai framework are only those caused by nature
(C) in dealing with victims of disasters, their self-esteem and pride must be considered
(D) the Sendai framework has been implemented for about 15 years
(E) Japan is the head of the UN member countries formulating the Sendai framework
The kind of passage might be found in …
(A) an article on first aids
(B) an encyclopedia
(C) a philosophy book
(D) an article on environment
(E) a daily newspaper
What is the purpose of the writer?
(A) to criticize the UN member states for not providing sufficient aid for the victims of disasters
(B) to ask people to donate some money to be given to those in disaster-affected areas
(C) to invite people to reduce the burden suffered by people affected by disasters
(D) to show how hard the lives of people who have been displaced are due to disasters
(E) to explain the kinds of serious impacts that people experience from disasters
What is the tone of the passage?
An echo of outrage was heard following the recent tragedy in Bangladesh, where a structurally unsound building collapsed, killing thousands of workers who were making products for U.S. consumers. The echo is a familiar one, as various high-profile labor abuses involving major international brands such as Nike. Apple and the Gap. have occurred over the past decades ..(40).. to bring concrete actions, the echo of outrage fades, and the media cycle move on.
While economists and activists disagree about the costs and benefits of such practices. research organizations consistently have found that consumer prefer ..(42).. products made without sweatshop labor. Consumers may not really disapprove of sweatshop labor and instead turn to economic justifications. Like many economists, these consumers may feel their participation in this system is a better option for the workers than toiling in fields.
In addition, as humans, we tend to be less sensitive to harms that occur away from us than those occurring in our backyard. When tragedies such as Bangladesh happen, our emotions are intense. We cannot believe such atrocities are able to happen, but over time emotions wear Out. The heat of the moment has faded and our motivation to change the situation fades.
In an effort to alleviateconflict surrounding sweatshop labor, ..(44).. Even if consumers demand something, if companies do not supply it. ..(45).. Taking this acceptance as a signal for endorsement, companies may fail to see the opportunity in offering products that are sourced without sweatshop labor. This initiative, to ethical business and consumption, would make the echo of Bangladesh tragedy a distant memory.
(D) having failed
(E) have been failing
The sentence “The use of questionable labor practices, popularly know as ‘sweatshop labor,’ is widespread in the production of consumer goods,” should be put in …
(A) the first sentence of paragraph 1
(B) the first sentence of paragraph 2
(C) the third sentence of paragraph 3
(D) the second sentence of paragraph 2
(E) the second sentence of paragraph 3
The italic phrase “wear out ” in the third paragraph means …
(A) the market should offer free accessible sweatshop products
(B) the accessible sweatshop-free market should offer products
(C) the sweatshop-free products should offer accessible market
(D) accessible products should offer the sweatshop-free market
(E) the market should offer accessible sweatshop-tree products