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Very little was ever written about the third-class passengers of the Titanic: reporters, the United States Senate investigation, and the British investigation never bothered to interview any of the third-class survivors.
Most of those in third class spoke very little English. But for some, like Titanic survivor Elin Hakkarainen, the memory lingered long enough for her English to catch up ...
We could hardly believe that in two more days we would be landing In America. Originally, my husband and I planned on making the trip on board the Mauretania, but we decided to wait a few months so we could make the crossing aboard the luxury liner Titanic. Married just a few months, Pekko and 1 decided to leave Finland and start a new life in America. Although we were booked as third class, we still enjoyed many "extras" on board and had quite a time in our little group. After a couple of days at sea we settled into a routine: attending church services after breakfast, strolling the decks, and during the evening playing games in the third-class general room.
We would leave the game room very late in the evening, and the night of April 14th was no exception. Just after we returned to our cabin and settled in, Pekko reached to turn out the light when we heard a scraping sound and felt the ship shudder. A few moments later the throb of the engines stopped. Pekko jumped out of bed, slipped into his clothes, and said, "I'm going to see what has happened." Not thinking too much of WI this, I dozed off. But after an hour or so, the murmuring of other passengers in the hall awakened me. I noticed Pekko was still gone, and when I tried to step out of the bed, the cabin was tilted at an angle.
Soon there was a hard and very fast knock at the door, and one of my friends from Finland dashed in to say the ship had struck something and was sinking. "Where is Pekko?" she asked. "He went to see why the ship had stopped. I don't know where he is now." "How did he get out of the passageway?" she continued. "All the doors are locked!" I was confused: I didn't know what to do next. After a few moments I grabbed my purse and life jacket and ran out to the passageway. The door was locked! All of the doors were locked.
Finally a ship's steward came and gathered a small group of us together and guided us, "Come, there is another way to get to the upper deck." On the upper deck, it was rather quiet–almost eerie. The deck on the ship's bow was already under water, and the loud sound of the steam escaping from the funnels had settled down. The lifeboats were guarded by the ship's officers standing in semicircles around each one. Soon I was motioned aboard a lifeboat, but I still was scanning the listing deck looking for my husband.
We rowed away quickly, watching our ship slide beneath the surface of the water. The screams of those in the water were horrible–I remember calling over and over, "Pekko, Pekko, I am here: come this way." It was cold on the lifeboat, and I wasn't wearing warm clothes. I didn't know if I was falling asleep or freezing to death, but I drifted into unconsciousness.
Soon after, it was daylight, and we could see a ship in the distance–we would be rescued ... and made warm. Once aboard the Carpathia, the passengers and crew did their best to console us. We were given clothes, food, and hot coffee. But with all we were given. I was still lacking. I slowly realized the last words I might ever hear from my husband were, "I'm going to see what has happened." I remember standing at the railing for hours, looking out to the open sea and hoping upon hope that I would discover just one more lifeboat.
What is the topic of the passage?
(A) the Titanic
(B) a Titanic survivor account
(C) the sinking of Titanic
(D) the experience of a husband and a wife
(E) the death of the writer’s husband
The information ____ is NOT TRUE according to the text.
(A) the night of April 14th, the writer and Pekko left the game room in the left evening
(B) on the lifeboat, the writer was unconscious
(C) a ship steward helped the writer to go to the upper deck
(D) Pekko informed the writer that the ship was sinking
(E) the writer had married before boarding the Titanic
The last sentence:
"I remember … hoping upon hope that I would discover just one more lifeboat."
(A) the writer hopes that her husband is not dead
(B) the writer still hoped that her husband would be alive
(C) the writer had found the last lifeboat
(D) the writer's husband was found aboard the last lifeboat
(E) the writer was alive
August 6, 1945–the sun rose into a clear blue sky over the city of Hiroshima, Japan promising a warm and pleasant day. Nothing in the day's dawning indicated that this day would be any different from its predecessors. But this day would be different very different This day would change the world. On this day a single bomb dropped by a single airplane destroyed the city, leading to the end of World War II and introducing mankind to the Atomic Age.
Dr. Michihiko Hachiya lived through that day and kept a diary of his experience. He served as the Director of the Hiroshima Communications Hospital and lived near the hospital approximately a mile from the explosion's epicenter. His diary was published in English in 1955:
Suddenly, a strong flash of light ...
The hour was early, the morning was still warm, and beautiful. Shimmering leaves, reflecting sunlight from a cloudless sky, made a pleasant contrast with shadows in my garden as I gazed absently through wide-flung doors opening to the south.
Clad in drawers and undershirt, I was sprawled on the living room floor exhausted because I had just spent a sleepless night on duty as an air warden in my hospital.
Suddenly, a strong flash of light startled me–and then another. So well does one recall little things that I remember vividly how a stone lantern in the garden became brilliantly lit and I debated whether this light was caused by a magnesium flare or sparks from a passing trolley.
Garden shadows disappeared. The view where a moment before had been so bright and sunny was now dark and hazy. Through swirling dust I could barely discern a wooden column that had supported one corner of my house. It was leaning crazily and the roof sagged dangerously.
Moving instinctively, I fried to escape, but rubble and fallen timbers barred the way. By picking my way cautiously I managed to reach the roka [an outside hallway] and stepped down into my garden. A profound weakness overcame me. so I stopped to regain my strength. To my surprise I discovered that I was completely naked. How odd! Where were my drawers and undershirt?
What had happened?
All over the right side of my body I was cut and bleeding. A large splinter was protruding from a mangled wound in my thigh, and something warm trickled into my mouth. My cheek was torn, I discovered as I felt it gingerly, with the lower lip laid wide open. Embedded in my neck was a sizable fragment of glass which I matter-of-factly dislodged, and with the detachment of it, my hand was bleeding.
Where was my wife?
Suddenly alarmed, I began to yell for her: 'Yaeko-san! Yaeko-san! Where are you?' Blood began to spurt. Had my carotid artery been cut? Would I bleed to death? Frightened and irrational, I called out again 'Its a five-hundred-ton bomb! Yaeko-san, where are you? A five- hundred-ton bomb has fallen!'
Yaeko-san, pale and frightened, her clothes torn and blood-stained, emerged from the ruins of our house holding her elbow. Seeing her, I was reassured. My own panic assuaged, I tired to reassure her.
We'll be all right,' I acclaimed. 'Only let's get out of here as fast as we can.' She nodded, and I motioned for her to follow me."
It was all a nightmare ...
Dr. Hachiya and his wife made their way to the street. As the homes around them collapsed, they realized they must move on, and began their journey to the hospital a few hundred yards away.
“We started out, but after twenty or thirty steps I had to stop. My breath became short, my heart pounded, and my legs gave way under me. An overpowering thirst seized me and I begged Yaeko-san to find me some water. But there was no water to be found. After a little my strength somewhat returned and we were able to go on.
I was still naked, and although I did not feel the least bit of shame. I was disturbed to realize that modesty had deserted me. On rounding a corner we came upon a soldier standing idly in the street_He had a towel draped across his shoulder, and I asked if he would give it to me to cover my nakedness. The soldier surrendered the towel quite willingly but said not a word. A little later I lost the towel. and Yaeko-san took off her apron and tied it around my loins.
Our progress towards the hospital was interminably slow, until finally, my legs, stiff from drying blood, refused to carry me farther. The strength, even the will, to go on deserted me, so I told my wife, who was almost as badly hurt as I, to go on alone. This she objected to, but there was no choice. She had to go ahead and try to find someone to come back for me.
Yaeko-san looked into my face for a moment, and then, without saying a word, turned away and began running towards the hospital. Once, she looked back and waved and in a moment she was swallowed up in the gloom. It was quite dark now, and with my wife gone. a feeling of dreadful loneliness overcame me.
I must have gone out of my head lying there in the road because the next thing I recall was discovering that the clot on my thigh had been dislodged and blood was again spurting from the wound.
I pressed my hand to the bleeding area and after a while the bleeding stopped and I felt better.
Could I go on?
I tried. It was all a nightmare-my wounds, the darkness, the road ahead. My movements were ever so slow: only my mind was running at top speed.
In time I came to an open space where the houses had been removed to make a fire lane. Through the dim light I could make out ahead of me the hazy outlines of the Communications Bureau's big concrete building, and beyond it the hospital. My spirits rose because I knew that now someone would find me: and if I should die, at least my body would be found. I paused to rest. Gradually things around me came into focus. There were the shadowy forms of people, some of whom looked like walking ghosts. Others moved as though in pain, like scarecrows. their arms held out from their bodies with forearms and hands dangling. These people puzzled me until I suddenly realized that they had been burned and were holding their arms out to prevent the painful friction of raw surfaces rubbing together. A naked woman carrying a naked baby came into view. I averted my gaze. Perhaps they had been in the bath. But then I saw a naked man, and it occurred to me that, like myself, some strange thing had deprived them of their clothes. An old woman lay near me with an expression of suffering on her face: but she made no sound. Indeed, one thing was common to everyone I saw -complete silence.
All who could were moving in the direction of the hospital. I joined in the dismal parade when my strength was somewhat recovered, and at last reached the gates of the Communications Bureau."
The underlined word “predecessors” (paragraph 1) most nearly means …
(B) former days
(E) previous life
What is the best title for the text?
(A) recounting the Atomic Bombing
(B) recounting the Bombing of Hiroshima
(C) recounting the Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
(D) recounting an Atomic Bombing Experiment in Japan
(E) recounting Atomic War
Which one is NOT TRUE according to the text?
(A) after the bomb had been dropped, his house's wooden column tilted
(B) after the bomb had been dropped, he was completely naked
(C) his wife arrived at the hospital before he did
(D) on his way to the hospital, he stopped more than once
(E) he saw walking ghosts on his way to the hospital
Below are what happened to Michihiko Hachiya's body after the bomb had been dropped, EXCEPT …
(A) the right side of his body was wounded
(B) his thigh was wounded
(C) his cheek was torn
(D) his neck was lunged with a fragment of glass
(E) his face was pale
The underlined word “concrete” (paragraph 25) most nearly means …
(C) building material
Hitler established the first concentration camp soon after he came to power in 1933. The system grew to include about 100 camps divided into two types: concentration camps for slave labor in nearby factories and death camps for the systematic extermination of "undesirables" including Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals, the mentally retarded and others.
As the allied armies raced towards final victory, advancing troops liberated the camps one-by-one, revealing the horrors of the Nazi concept of establishing a "pure" society. The first liberation came in July 1944 when Soviet troops entered Maidanek, a death camp located in Poland two miles from the city of Lublin. Alexander Werth, a correspondent for the London Sunday Times and the BBC, accompanied the Soviet troops and described the camp shortly after its capture.
The BBC refused to air his report of the camp as his description was so unbelievable they considered it a Soviet propaganda ploy. It was not until the later capture of Buchenwald, Dachau and other camps on the western front that his description was accepted as true.
"It looked singularly harmless."
The Maidanek camp was established by the Nazis in 1941 soon after their conquest of the then Russian occupied region of Poland. The primary purpose of the facility was the speedy extermination of new arrivals (mostly Jews) transported in from various countries including Czechoslovakia, France, Austria, and Holland. The majority of victims, however, came from the immediate area. It is estimated that 1.5 million died at the camp during its three years of operation.
Soviet troops entered the camp in July 1944. A week later, Alexander Werth joined a group of fellow reporters in a guided tour of the facility:
"My first reaction to Maidanek was a feeling of surprise. I had imagined something horrible and sinister beyond words. It was nothing like that It looked singularly harmless from outside. 'Is that it?' was my first reaction when we stopped at what looked like a large workers' settlement Behind us was the many towered skyline of Lublin. There was much dust on the road, and the grass as dull, greenish-grey colour. The camp was separated from the road by a couple of barbed-wire fences, but these did not look particularly sinister, and might have been put up outside any military or semi-military establishment The place was large: like a whole town of barracks painted a pleasant soft green. There were many people around-soldiers and civilians. A Polish sentry opened the barbed-wire gate to let cars enter the central avenue, with large green barracks on either side. And we stopped outside a large barrack marked Bad und Desinfektion II. 'This,' somebody said, 'is where large numbers of those arriving at the camp were brought in.'
The inside of this barrack was made of concrete, and water taps came out of the wall, and around the room there were benches where the clothes were put down and afterwards collected. So this was the place into which they were driven. Or perhaps they were politely invited to 'Step this way, please?' Did any of them suspect, while washing themselves after a long journey, what would happen a few minutes later? Anyway, after the washing was over, they were asked to go into the next room: at this point even the most unsuspecting must have begun to wonder. For the "next room" was a series of large square concrete structures, each about one-quarter of the size the bath-house, and, unlike it, had no windows. The naked people (men one time, women another time, children the next) were driven or forced from the bath-house into these dark concrete boxes-about five yards square-and then, with 200 or 250 people packed into each box-and it was completely dark there, except for a small light in the ceiling and the spyhole in the door-the process of gassing began. First some hot air was pumped in from the ceiling and then the pretty pale-blue crystals of Cyclon were showered down on the people, and in the hot wet air they rapidly evaporated. In anything from two to ten minutes everybody was dead ...
There were six concrete boxes-gas-chambers-side by side. 'Nearly two thousand people could be disposed of here simultaneously,' one of the guides said. But what thoughts passed through these people's minds during
But what thoughts passed through these people's minds during those first few minutes while the crystals were falling: could anyone still believe that this humiliating process of being packed into a box and standing there naked, rubbing backs with other naked people, had anything to do with disinfection?
At first it was all very hard to take in, without an effort of the imagination. There were a number of very dull-looking concrete structures which, if their doors had been wider, might anywhere else have been mistaken for a row of nice little garages. But the doors - the doors! They were heavy steel doors, and each had a heavy steel bolt. And in the middle of the door was a spyhole, a circle, three inches in diameter composed of about a hundred small holes. Could the people in their death agony see the SS man's eye as he watched them? Anyway, the SS-man had nothing to fear: his eye was well protected by the steel netting over the spyhole ...
... Then a touch of blue on the floor caught my eye. It was very faint, but still legible. In blue chalk someone had scribbled the word "vergast’ and had drawn crudely above it a skull and crossbones. I had never seen this word before but it obviously meant" gassed" -and not merely "gassed" but: with, that eloquent little prefix ver. 'gassed out'. That's this job finished, and now for the next lot. The blue chalk came into motion when there was nothing but a heap of naked corpses inside. But what cries, what curses, what prayers perhaps, had been uttered inside that gas chamber only a few minutes before? ..."
The text mainly tells us about …
(A) the victim account of the Maidanek Concentration Camp
(B) a reporter experience touring the Maidanek Concentration Camp
(C) a Soviet troops retelling his story finding the Maidanek Concentration Camp
(D) Hitler account of the Maidanek Concentration Camp
(E) the slaughtering of Jews by Nazi Germany
The opposite of the underlined word "immediate" (paragraph 5) is mostly …
Which one is TRUE about the text?
(A) from the outside, Maidanek looked horrible and sinister
(B) the doors of the gas chambers in Maidanek were made of iron
(C) the writer was the first person to find the Maidanek Concentration Camp
(D) at first the BBC thought the camp was a Soviet scheme
(E) concentration camps were made only to murder the "undesirables"
The underlined word “disposed of” (paragraph 9) mostly means …
What does the phrase “… the pretty pale-blue crystals of Cyclon …” mostly refer to?
(B) hot water
(D) hot air
(E) air evaporation
On September 11, 2001, Sydney woman Penny saw American Airlines Flight 11 hit the north tower of the World Trade Centre from her hotel window across the road. She shares her story and photos for the first time.
I was staying in the Millennium Hilton Hotel, directly across the road from the twin towers on Church Street. I was standing at the window taking photos of the view when I heard the sound of the plane approaching. It seemed normal at first until in a few split seconds it turned into a roar, followed by a massive explosion. I'm sure as I can be that whoever was flying that jet put it in full throttle just before it hit, as the screech sounded just like when a plane is taking off.
I watched at the window while the enormity of the disaster began to unfold, watched as we realised people were trapped on the floors above the explosion, as fire and police rescuers streamed into the building.
People were throwing whatever they could out of the windows-tables, water coolers etc. to break the glass and get air. I could see them hanging out of windows, then to my horror I realised people were beginning to jump to their death rather than being burned alive. What a terrible choice to have to make. And there was nothing I. or as it turned out, anyone else, could do to help.
I saw what I'm pretty sure was a policeman killed by a person who fell on him.
We were told to stay in the building as there was a lot of falling debris, massive pillars, all sorts of things, paper like a ticker-tape parade.
I switched on the television to see if there was anything on the news. Up until that point I thought it was an accident Then suddenly as I watched it live, like millions of other people, I heard the second plane come screaming in.
The explosion was a lot bigger and closer and our building shook. I suddenly realised something was very wrong. For some bizarre reason I thought there must be something wrong with air traffic control and they didn't realise they were directing the planes into downtown Manhattan.
Either way I knew I had to get out because we could well be next in line and I didn't want to be leaping to my death from a 60-storey building like those poor people I had tragically just witnessed.
My instinct was to run-I didn't get dressed, I didn't grab anything, I escaped in the hotel bathrobe and only took my camera as it was still in my hand and I hadn't thought to put it down.
People came streaming out of their rooms, panicked and fighting to get into the lift, which was packed by now. An announcement came over the loudspeaker to evacuate immediately. It seemed like an eternity for the elevator to get down to the ground because it stopped at every floor and people were pushed back as they tried to crush their way in.
In the foyer we were ushered out a side door and I was grateful I had grabbed my sandals, as there was debris on the ground.
We ran up a side sheet and I recall being astonished that people were just standing there, mesmerised by what they were seeing. I've thought about why since then and I think they were so shocked to see those buildings, which were so familiar to them and part of the New York those building, which were so familiar to them and part of the New York landscape, attacked and burning. It was personal to them.
But my every instinct was to get as far away from the towers and all the other buildings as I could. I ran down to Battery Park, where I had caught the Statue of Liberty ferry the day before. On the streets people were standing around people with mobile phones getting updates and we heard there were more planes hijacked and on the way.
I had only been on a wharf near Battery Park for a relatively short time when I heard another massive explosion and saw a huge cloud of dust coming our way.
It was incomprehensible that one of the towers had fallen down but we pretty soon understood that's what happened. And then a short time later the next tower fell. It was too much in. All we could do was cover our faces from the dust, sit and wait to see what was going to happen next.
Thousands of people were on foot escaping across the bridges but it just seemed too exposed if there were more attacks so I waited by the river thinking at least I could swim for it if necessary.
Eventually a police boat came and evacuated us from Manhattan. I was given shelter for a couple of nights by a Wall Street banker I had met who had just lost dozens of friends. I was stuck in New York for almost two weeks before I could get a flight home.
I've been back to New York twice now, I still love it and feel a dose bond with the people, who we shared such a tragic time with in the days after the attack.
I've tried to connect with other Australians who were there on that day and will be attending the interfaith memorial service at St Mary's Cathedral in Sydney on the 10th anniversary of the attack.
What was the writer doing right before the first plane hit the twin towers?
(A) she was sleeping
(B) she was taking photos at the windows
(C) she was running outside her hotel
(D) she was jumping from her hotel window
(E) she was helping people
The writer saw the following after the first airplane crashed the twin towers, EXCEPT …
(A) fire and police rescuers who immediately entered the building
(B) people in the twin towers throwing things out of the windows to get air
(C) people in the twin towers jumping from the building
(D) a person stepped on a police officer
(E) falling debris
Which one is TRUE according to the text?
(A) there was only one plane crashing into the twin towers
(B) only one of the twin towers fell down
(C) a firefighter evacuated the writer from Manhattan
(D) the writer entered the twin towers after the plane crash
(E) the writer was not the only Australian who had witnessed the 9/11
What did the writer think after the saw the first crash?
(A) she thought it was a terrorist attack
(B) she thought it was an air traffic control’s fault
(C) she thought it was an accident
(D) she thought it was only a normal sound of an airplane
(E) she thought her hotel would be the next target