- Latihan Soal
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Text A (1-4)
by Tom Harris.
Humans have been wearing armor for thousands of years. Ancient tribes fastened animal hide and plant material around their bodies when they went out on the hunt, and the warriors of ancient Rome and medieval Europe covered their torsos in metal plates before going into battle. By the 1400s, armor in the Western world had become highly sophisticated. With the right armor, you were nearly Invincible.
All that changed with the development of cannons and guns in the 1500s. These weapons hurl projectiles at a high rate of speed, giving them enough energy to penetrate thin layers of metal. You can increase the thickness of traditional armor materials, but they soon become too cumbersome and heavy for a person to wear. It wasn’t until the 1960s that engineers developed a reliable bullet-resistant armor that a person could wear comfortably. Unlike traditional armor, this soft body armor is not made out of pieces of metal, it is formed from advanced woven fibers that can be sewn into vests and other soft clothing.
Soft body armor is a fairly mystifying concept: How can a soft piece of clothing stop bullets? The principle at work is actually quite simple. At its heart, a piece of bullet-proof material is just a very strong net.
To see how this works, think of a soccer goal. The back of the goal consist of a net formed by many long lengths of tether, interlaced with each other and fastened to the goal frame. When you kick the soccer ball into the goal, the ball has a certain amount of energy, in the form of forward inertia. When the ball hits the net, it pushes back on the tether lines at that particular point. Each tether extends from one side of the frame to the other, dispersing the energy from the point of impact over a wide area.
The energy is further dispersed because the tethers are interlaced. When the ball pushes on a horizontal length of tether, that tether pulls on every interlaced vertical tether. These tethers in turn pull on all the connected horizontal tethers. In this way, the whole net works to absorb the ball’s inertial energy, no matter where the ball hits.
If you were to put a piece of bulletproof material under a powerful microscope, you would see a similar structure. Long strands of fiber are interlaced to form a dense net. A bullet is traveling much faster than a soccer ball, of course, so the net needs to be made from stronger material. The most famous material used in body armor is DuPont’s KEVLAR fiber. KEVLAR is lightweight, like a traditional clothing fiber, but it is five times stronger than a piece of steel of the same weight When interwoven into a dense net, this material can absorb a great amount of energy.
In addition to stopping the bullet from reaching your body, a piece of body armor also has to protect against blunt trauma caused by the force of the bullet.
When you kick a ball into a soccer goal, the net is pushed back pretty far, slowing the ball down gradually. This is a very efficient design for a goal because it keeps the ball from bouncing out into the field. But bulletproof material can’t give this much because the vest would push too far into the wearer’s body at the point of impact. Focusing the blunt trauma of the impact in a small area can cause severe internal injuries.
Bulletproof vests have to spread the blunt trauma out over the whole vest so that the force isn’t felt too intensely in any one spot. To do this, the bulletproof material must have a very tight weave. Typically, the individual fibers are twisted, increasing their density and their thickness at each point. To make it even more rigid, the material is coated with a resin substance and sandwiched between two layers of plastic film.
A person wearing body armor will still feel the energy of a bullet’s impact, of course, but over the whole torso rather than in a specific area. If everything works correctly, the victim won’t be seriously hurt. Since no one layer can move a good distance, the vest has to slow the bullet down using many different layers. Each “net” slows the bullet a little bit more, until the bullet finally stops. The material also causes the bullet to deform at the point of the impact. Essentially, the bullet spreads out at the tip, in the same way a piece of clay spreads out if you throw It against a wall. This process, which further reduces the energy of the bullet, is called “mushrooming.”
To sum up, modern soft body armor consists of several layers of super-strong webbing. This material disperses the energy of a bullet over a wide area, preventing penetration and dissipating blunt trauma. This sort of armor, as well as hard armor, ranges considerably in effectiveness, depending on the materials used as well as the armor design. However, no bulletproof vest is completely impenetrable, and there is no piece of body armor that will make you invulnerable to attack.
What is the best title for the text?
(A) How Body Armor Works
(B) Why Body Armor Exists
(C) How We Can Protect Ourselves
(D) Body Armor and Soccer
(E) Soft Armor and Hard Armor
The followings are TRUE according to the text, EXCEPT …
(A) the development of cannons and guns in the 1500s gave rise to the need of better body armor
(B) body armor will never make you completely impenetrable
(C) in 1400s even with the best armor, people are not totally invulnerable
(D) Kevlar fiber is the only material used in body armor
(E) modern soft body armor contains more than one layer
Why would the author mention “soccer goal” in paragraph 4?
(A) to show the similarities between soccer goal and body armor
(B) to make the readers understand the concept of body armor by explaining a similar and more common example
(C) to make the readers discuss the difference between soccer goal and body armor
(D) to make the readers aware of the similarities and differences between soccer goal and body armor
(E) to make the readers realize the importance of body armor to the existence of soccer goals
The condusion can be found in paragraph …
(A) first paragraph
(B) last paragraph
(C) first and last paragraphs
(D) first and second paragraphs
(E) this text has no conclusion
Text B (05-07)
By Molly Edmonds.
Smell is probably the most important shark sense, so much so that sharks have been referred to as “swimming noses”. There are some impressive statistics to back this up, too. A shark can sniff out fish extracts that make up only one part for every 10 billion. Other research shows sharks are able to respond to one part blood for every one million parts of water; this is like being able to smell one teaspoon of something in a swimming pool. What’s more, sharks can smell these small amounts from hundreds of meters away.
How does the shark do this? Just under the snout are two nares, or nasal cavities. Each nare has two openings, one for water to enter and one for water to exit. The shark sucks or pulls the water into the nares to sniff out any evidence of prey. The water goes into nasal sacs and over a series of skin folds known as olfactory lamellae. The nasal cavities are big spaces, which gives the shark more time to register the smells. The nasal sacs are filled with sensory cells, which send signals to the shark’s brain. The olfactory lobes in the shark’s brain analyze the smells, looking for those that match the scent of their prey or the pheromones of potential mates. And sharks have pretty advanced equipment up there-about two-thirds of the shark’s brain weight is composed of olfactory lobes.
Once the shark identifies the scent and decides to pursue, it starts swimming. The shark’s natural swimming motion of moving its head back and forth provides further assistance in determining where the scent is coming from. With each movement, the snout picks up more water for the shark to analyze, and the shark is able to tell whether it’s coming from the right or left nare. This helps them determine which way to swim.
The shark’s nose may work so well because it doesn’t have to do anything else. Sharks use their noses just for smelling. Breathing is accomplished with a shark’s gills, and the shark’s sense of smell is not connected to its mouth in anyway. Sharks often don’t know how something is going to taste until they’ve taken a bite. This is how some people are able to “escape” from a shark attack–the shark gets a little nibble of a foot and decides to reject the prey.
The best topic of the text is …
(A) Shark Breathing Technique
(B) Shark Senses
(C) Shark Smell
(D) Shark Abilities
(E) Shark Roles
Which one is TRUE according to the text?
(A) more than half of sharks’ brain weight is composed of olfactory lobes
(B) sharks always kill their preys
(C) sharks can use their mouths to smell their preys
(D) similar to other types of fish, sharks breathe with gills
(E) sharks swim back and forth to understand how they preys taste
Why would the author mention “teaspoon” and “swimming pool” in paragraph 1’?
(A) to show how sharks behave
(B) to demonstrate the importance of shark smell
(C) to give example of how sharks hunt its preys
(D) to make the readers understand how powerful sharks’ smell is
(E) to show that sharks can smell scents from far away
Text C (08-11)
By Clint Pumphrey.
Let’s say you’re shopping online for shoes. After browsing a few stores for just the right pair, you surf over to an article on your favorite news site. There, like magic, an advertisement appears for the very same shoes you were admiring just moments ago. “That’s funny” you tell yourself before clicking through to a weather site for the weekend forecast. Then, wedged between sunny Saturday and stormy Sunday, you see yet another ad for the shoes. You’re not going crazy, you’ve just experienced the wonder of custom Internet advertising.
Targeted advertising has been part of the Internet experience since the late 1990s. Back then, companies tried to reach out to consumers online in much the same way they had on TV: by choosing ads that likely appealed to the broadest part of their audience. In other words, since fly fishing shows featured ads for rods and trips to Alaska, then so would fly fishing Web sites. Then, in the early 2000s. Internet advertising got a little smarter. Companies began using browsing habits and other data collected from users to make ads more personalized, and promotions for shoes and all kinds of other products and services began following people across the Web.
Today, custom Internet advertising is widespread, and the public is beginning to notice. According to a 2012 Pew Internet and American Life Project report, 59 percent of Internet users said they observed targeted advertising while surfing the Web. Some activists see the practice as an invasion of privacy since it relies so heavily on the collection of personal information, but advertisers insist that its harmless. So, which is it?
In order to deliver custom ads, companies first need to know something about you. Here are a few ways they gather that information:
Clickstream Data. In custom advertising, the term clickstream refers to a record of Web pages you’ve visited. This data is collected using a tiny text file called a cookie, which a site sends to your computer so it can track your movements among its pages. There are two types of cookies: first-party cookies, which are sent by the site domain in the address bar, and third-party cookies, which come from other domains that have embedded ads or images on the page. Marketing companies like DoubleClick, Which advertise on sites across the Web, use third-party cookies to compile surprisingly complete records of users’ browsing habits. This information helps them tailor advertising to specific patrons. For example, if a user’s clickstream record includes a lot of sports Web sites, he or she may see more advertisements for team jerseys and game tickets, even when viewing something unrelated, like the weather.
Search Data. A 2011 Pew Internet survey found that 92 percent of adults used search engines when online, so it’s no wonder that sites like Google, Yahoo’ and MSN have gotten into the advertising business. They analyze search terms and user habits to place targeted advertising alongside regular search results and often allow companies to pay them for a higher position among the results for particular keywords. That’s why, when you do a search for “sleeping bags,” larger outdoor companies often appear first, and advertisements for sleeping bags line the margins of the page.
Profile Data. When you create a profile on a social networking site such as Facebook you probably enter information about your age, religion, education, political views, interests and favorite movies, music and books so your friends can get to know you better. What you may not know is that these sites also use that data to provide you with custom advertising. For example, if you list one of your interests as “board games,” don’t be surprised to see ads for Scrabble, Monopoly or Life.
The best title for the text above is …
(A) How You Give Your Personal Information Voluntarily to the Internet
(B) How Advertisers Show You Custom Ads
(C) How We Shop Online
(D) How Advertisement Changes the Way We Explore the Internet
(E) How Advertising Emerged
What is implied from the text?
(A) people who shop for shoes online are the only people who get custom ads
(B) targeted advertising had been around before 1990s
(C) online ads are more personalized in the early 2000s
(D) some internet users want to ban custom ads because it is an invasion of privacy
(E) custom ads are harmful
The underlined word “invasion” in paragraph 3 most nearly means …
Which one is FALSE about how advertisers obtain information about you?
(A) clickstream data is collected through cookies
(B) what you search in the search engines may decide what advertisements you see on the search results
(C) your purchase history contributes to product ads that you see on certain websites
(D) personal information on social networking sites may decide the ads you see on the internet
(E) if you have a social networking site, you will see ads for scrabble, monopoly, or life
Text D (12-16)
By Jessika Toothman.
Colossal explosions split the sky, tsunamis crash over major metropolises, meteorites plough through mountain ranges, life-size dinosaurs stomp around primordial forests–and let’s not even get into all the creative ways the White House has been cinematically smashed up over the years.
These sorts of spectacular special effects can boggle the mind, both In terms of how extraordinary they are visually, as well as how much they reportedly cost to produce. Hollywood blockbusters like the “Pirates of the Caribbean” and “Spider-Man” trilogies are packed with shocking special effects that push their budgets way up into the hundreds of millions, and somebody out there has to be footing the bill.
There are lots of readily apparent ways that blockbusters make money. When people go see a movie in theaters, rent it when it’s available for home viewing, buy the DVD or purchase the soundtrack, the studio responsible gets a percentage of the proceeds. It also collects from television distribution contracts on various domestic and foreign TV outlets, from pay-per-view to basic cable and free networks to satellite stations. But keep in mind the percentage aspect-box-office numbers and the rest of these revenues are split up among different vested parties-like the star, for instance-and don’t reflect a complete payback to a studio’s blockbuster budget. Plus, post-theater success often hinges at least in part on box-office turnout, adding another complication to the equation.
Depending on the film, money can also sometimes be made through means like merchandising and licensing contracts. Studios typically get a guaranteed dollar amount, plus royalties. Paying for a Hollywood blockbuster means more than covering the cost of actually producing the movie, though. Marketing Is another big slice of the budget, for example, and since box office sales alone usually aren’t enough to cover even the cost of advertising, it’s another reason why additional funding vehicles are so important.
But apart from these obvious, and primarily post-production, methods for making sure blockbuster movies turn a profit, behind-the-scenes systems can help get much of the funding necessary for covering the bottom line in place ahead of time.
Hollywood blockbusters might tend to take root in Los Angeles, but when it comes to raising the funds needed to make a movie, the shoots spread across the world. Laws and loopholes vary greatly from country to country, and successful executive producers are savvy when it comes to digging up the best deals.
One good example can be found in Germany’s tax code: Potential German investors looking to finagle their finances can invest in a future blockbuster and take the related tax deduction right away, thus postponing burdensome taxes for a later date. They buy the movie’s copyright and instantly lease it back to the Hollywood studio at the helm. The participating studio also pays the German investors a small advance on the movie, which qualifies as profit and satisfies the other side of the tax law.
Then all sorts of swapping follow. For example, the German investors will typically sign contract agreements that limit their involvement to token (and transitory) ownership, for which they pony up around 10 percent at the end of the day. Eventually the rights to the movie return to the studio in full, and the studio takes that profit right off its bottom line. Best of all, the films aren’t required to be shot in Germany or employ any Germans, as is dictated by some countries’ tax laws, so it still works for movies that might otherwise be inconvenienced by strict location requirements.
Another way studios can defray their costs is through strategic product placement We’re not talking about an obvious display of commercial wares like in the classic “Wayne’s World” vignette, but rather the subtle introduction of a specific product into an applicable spot in a movie. Successful product placement doesn’t come off over-the-top, instead it aims to blend the product seamlessly into the movie’s plot Featured companies sometimes offer free products and services for the cast and crew in return, but nowadays they’re increasingly pitching in to the film’s marketing expenses-usually with the caveat that they get an appearance in the ads and trailers for the film, of course.
And these are just two examples. Myriad methods are available to movie insiders and intrepid entrepreneurs looking to be a part of the next big blockbuster hit. Even independent investors looking to score some cash are getting in on the action. Most use business smarts they picked up in other industries to mold strategies that have the potential to pay off big-keeping in mind that backing movies is always something of a gamble.
What is the purpose of paragraph 1 in the text above?
(A) to show how the Hollywood blockbusters are financed
(B) to mention all the natural disasters that happened in the past in Los Angeles
(C) to give introduction to typical scenes in Hollywood blockbusters
(D) to exemplify the typical scenes from Hollywood blockbusters that are expensive
(E) to state the importance of white house in Hollywood blockbusters
What is the main topic of the passage?
(A) how people create special effects in Hollywood blockbusters
(B) how the Hollywood blockbusters are financed
(C) what makes Hollywood actors stay wealthy
(D) how Hollywood produces great movies
(E) why Hollywood create good movies
Which one is implied in the text?
(A) some ways of financing Hollywood are obvious
(B) normally, box office sales are not enough to cover the advertising cost
(C) The Germans always invest in Hollywood blockbusters because of his tax system
(D) Wayne’s World is an example of unsuccessful product placement
(E) cano industry finances Hollywood blockbusters
The followings may be the financing sources of Hollywood blockbusters, EXCEPT …
(A) spectacular special effects
(B) independent investors
(C) companies’ product placement
(D) merchandising contracts
(E) tv distribution contracts