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- Latihan Soal
Snoring is a common condition that can affect anyone, although it occurs more frequently in men and people who are overweight. Snoring has a tendency to worsen with age.
Snoring occurs when the flow of air through the mouth and nose is physically obstructed. Air flow can be obstructed by a combination of factors. Firstly, some people snore due to obstructed nasal airways. It usually happens during allergy seasons, when they have sinus infection, or when they have deformities of the nose structure. Secondly, some people may have poor muscle tone in the throat and tongue due to deep sleep, alcohol consumption, use of some sleeping pills, and even normal aging. As a result, these too relaxed muscles can collapse and fall back into the airway. Next, some people have bulky throat tissue. Bulky throat tissue can be caused by being overweight or, in children, by large tonsils and adenoids, the enlarged tissue between the back of the nose and throat. Lastly, a long soft palate (the roof of the mouth) and a long uvula (the dangling tissue in the back of the mouth) can narrow the opening from the nose to the throat. When these structures vibrate and bump against one another the airway becomes obstructed.
There are two types of snoring. Occasional snoring is usually not very serious and is mostly a nuisance for your bed partner. However, if you are a habitual snorer, you not only disrupt the sleep patterns of those close to you, but you also impair your own sleep quality. Medical assistance is often needed for habitual snorers to get a good night's sleep.
Habitual snorers can be at risk for serious health problems, including obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep apnea creates several problems including interruptions of breathing, frequent waking from sleep. light sleeping, poor night's sleep, and stain on the heart.
What is the purpose of this text?
(A) to persuade people not to snore
(B) to tell us about the author’s past experience
(C) to give general information about snoring
(D) to reduce the incidence of sleep apnea
(E) to help people to get a good sleep
According to the text, which one is TRUE?
(A) Bulky throat tissue may cause snoring in children
(B) poor muscle tone will result in deep sleep, alcohol consumption, sleeping pills, and aging
(C) air flow through the mouth and nose can only be obstructed by allergy
(D) a long soft palate and a long uvula can cause snoring by enlarging the opening from the nose to the throat
(E) sleep apnea causes snoring
What can be inferred from the text about snoring?
(A) snorers tent to be female
(B) underweight people do not snore
(C) habitual snorers sleep better than their bed partners
(D) people who snore habitually have obstructive sleep apnea
(E) when the snorer gets older, the snoring may get more severe
The underline word “obstructed” is similar in meaning to ...
Why did the author mention obstructive sleep apnea?
(A) to inform people of the cause of habitual snoring
(B) to emphasize the danger of habitual snoring
(C) to compare habitual snoring to a worse disease
(D) to tell the readers about the effects of sleep apnea
(E) to show the reader that occasional snoring will evolve into a more serious health problem
Coffee is a brewed beverage prepared from the roasted seeds of several species of an evergreen shrub of the genus Coffea. The two most common sources of coffee beans are the highly regarded Coffea arabica, and the "robusta" form of the hardier Coffea canephora. The latter is resistant to the coffee leaf rust, but has a more bitter taste. Coffee plants are cultivated in more than 70 countries, primarily in equatorial Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Once ripe, coffee "berries" are picked, processed, and dried to yield the seeds inside. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor, before being ground and brewed to create coffee.
Coffee is slightly acidic (pH 5.0-5.1) and can have a stimulating effect on humans because of its caffeine content. It is one of the most popular drinks in the world. It can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways. The effect of coffee on human health has been a subject of many studies, however, results have varied in terms of coffee's relative benefit. The majority of recent research suggests that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial in healthy adults. However, coffee can worsen the symptoms of conditions such as anxiety, largely due to the caffeine and diterpenes it contains.
Coffee cultivation first took place in southern Arabia; the earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking appears in the middle of the 15th century in the Sufi shrines of Yemen. In East Africa and Yemen, coffee was used in native religious ceremonies. As these ceremonies conflicted with the beliefs of the Christian church, the Ethiopian Church banned the secular consumption of coffee until the reign of Emperor Menelik II. The beverage was also banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe.
An important export commodity, coffee was the top agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004, and it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value in 2005. Green or unroasted coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world. Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Consequently, organic coffee is an expanding market.
The underline word “ the latter” (paragraph 1) refers to ...
(A) Coffee Beans
(B) Coffea Arabica
(C) Coffea Robusta
(D) Coffee Plants
(E) the later coffee
What is the antonym of the word “benign” (paragraph 2)?
What is the relevance of the reign of Emperor Menelik II to coffee?
(A) he was the first ruler that drank coffee
(B) his reign repealed the Ethiophian Church’s ban on coffee consumption
(C) he enacted the ban on coffee consumption
(D) he was associated with rebellious political activities in Ottoman Turkey
(E) he led the native religious ceremonies which used coffee
Which one is TRUE according to the text?
(A) in cultivating coffee beans, the coffee seeds are roasted to a single degree
(B) coffee is very acidic
(C) the significance of coffee consumption to human health hasn’t been studied
(D) in some region, coffee was used in religious rituals
(E) by its value, coffee is one of the least traded commodities in the world
Learning disabilities result from faulty perception, processing, and communication of information within the brain. Pediatricians can supply charts of developmental milestones, allowing parents to compare their children with norms in major stages of growth.
Learning disabilities include: auditory processing disorder, which makes It difficult to distinguish between sounds, and visual processing disorder, which causes problems with reading, map interpretation, and other work requiring analysis of visual information. Dyscalculia interferes with math ability and can cause problems using money. Dysgraphia is a difficulty with writing that may include problems with handwriting, spelling, and organization of ideas. Dyslexia is a disorder of language processing. Dyspraxia or apraxia is a sensory integration disorder that interferes with motor coordination or speech. People with apraxia or dyspraxia of speech, two names for an absent or diminished speech ability, can understand what's said to them, but have trouble articulating what they want to say. The root cause isn't in the muscle of the lips or tongue but rather in the brain.
Adults can acquire either disorder through brain injury, stroke, or tumor. A form of the disorder called developmental apraxia exists from birth. Scientists believe it arises either from a problem in overall language development, or through faulty neutral communication between the brain's language centers and the muscles that produce speech. The fact that children with developmental apraxia have a greater likelihood of family members with communication or learning disabilities point toward a genetic component.
In general the text tells us about ...
(A) the general information about learning disabilities
(B) the brain structure of people with learning disabilities
(C) that causes learning disabilities in children
(D) the danger of learning disabilities
(E) auditory and visual processing disorder
The underline word “root” in the text above have similar meaning to ...
(A) the part of a plant that is usually found underground
(C) a plant
Based on the text, which is WRONG?
(A) someone who suffers from apraxia of speech is able to understand what is said to him/her
(B) developmental apraxia occurs from birth
(C) problems in the brain may lead to learning disabilities
(D) people who have visual prosessing disorder are illiterate
(E) genetic component may play a role in developmental apraxia
Dementia Is not a specific disease. Its an overall term that describes a wide range of symptoms associated with a decline In memory or other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. Alzheimer's disease, which is the most common form of dementia, accounts for 60 to 80 percent of dementia cases. Vascular dementia, which occurs after a stroke, is the second most common dementia type.
While symptoms of dementia can vary greatly, at least two of the following tore mental functions must be significantly impaired to be considered dementia: memory, communication and language, ability to focus and pay attention, reasoning and judgment, and visual perception. People with dementia may have problems with short-term memory, keeping track of a purse or wallet, paying bills, planning and preparing meals, remembering appointments or traveling out of the neighborhood. Many dementias are progressive, which means symptoms start out slowly and graduallv get worse. (A).
(B). This damage interferes with the ability of brain cells to communicate with each other. When brain cells cannot communicate normally, thinking, behavior, and feelings can be affected. The brain has many distinct regions, each of which is responsible for different functions. When cells in a particular region are damages, that region cannot carry out its functions normally. Different types of dementia are associated with particular typos of brain cell damage in particular regions of the brain. For example, in Alzheimer's disease, high levels of certain proteins inside and outside brain cells make It hard for brain cells to stay healthy and to communicate with each other. The brain region called the hippocampus is the center of learning and memory in the brain, and the brain cells in this region are often the first to be damaged. That's why memory loss Is often one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer's. (C).
While most changes In the brain that cause dementia are permanent and worsen over time, there are also many conditions causing it that are reversible, which are depression, medication side effects, excess use of alcohol, thyroid problems, and vitamin deficiencies.
(D). Up to now, there is no one test to determine if someone has dementia. Doctors diagnose Alzheimer's and other types of dementia based on a careful medical history, a physical examination, laboratory tests, and the characteristic changes In thinking, day-to-day function and behavior associated with each type. Doctors can determine that a person has dementia with a high level of certainty, but it is harder to determine exact type of dementia because the symptoms and brain changes of different dementias can overlap. In some cases, a doctor may diagnose "dementia" and not specify a type. If this occurs it may be necessary to see a specialist such as neurologist or gero-psychologist.
(E). Treatment of dementia depends on its cause. In the case of most progressive dementias, including Alzheimer's disease, there is no cure and no treatment that slows or stops its progression. But there are drug treatments that may temporarily improve symptoms. The same medications used to treat Alzheimer's are among the drugs sometimes prescribed to help with symptoms of other types of dementias. Non-drug therapies can also alleviate some symptoms of dementia.
Which one is TRUE according to the text?
(A) diagnosing whether someone has dementia is quite evident to doctors
(B) dementia symptoms can only be treated by drugs
(C) there is a single way to treat dementia
(D) dementia is the most common from of Alzheimer’s disease
(E) if someone has significantly impaired visual perception, he/she is considered to have dementia
What does it mean by the underline word “reversible” in paragraph 5?
The underlined word “gradually” in paragraph 2 means ...
Why does memory problem often become the initial symptoms of Alzheimer’s?
(A) because thinking, feeling, and behavior are affected by Alzheimer’s
(B) because the hippocampus, which controls memory and learning in the brain, is often the first to be damaged
(C) because the brain cells are malfunction
(D) because the patients will suffer from memory loss
(E) because depression leads to problematic memory
To make the paragraph coherent, the sentence “Dementia is caused by damage to brain cells” is the best put into number ...
Scandinavian and Baltic Europe's landscape encompasses everything from the active volcanic belts of Iceland and magnificent edge-of-the-world granite cliffs along Norway's northern coast to the windswept sand dunes of western Lithuania, which once Inspired Jean-Paul Sartre. It also pulls together the majestic fjords of Norway, Greenland's glacial valleys, the dizzying island archipelagos of Sweden and Finland, the mountains of northern Norway and the flatlands of Denmark and the Baltic countries.
The frigid corner of the planet also runs a wild economic and political gamut. At one end are some of Europe's most socialist countries, which have the highest standards of living on the planet, and on the other the Baltic countries, relatively recently freed of their repressive Soviet past and the newest euro members, with some of the lowest wages yet most unfettered economies in the European Union.
'Scandinavia' in its strictest sense applies to Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, but generally includes Finland and Iceland. The area has been populated by hunting and agrarian tribes since the last ice age, but history buffs enthusiastically link Vikings with the region. The Vikings ruled the seas from the end of the 8th century until 1066, when an attempt to invade England fell flat.
The Kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden were united between 1.397 and 1536, after which Norway and Denmark remained together until 1814. Sweden moved politically closer to Finland.
Iceland and Greenland stayed under the Danish crown. In the 19th century, Denmark and Sweden were the major regional powers, often at odds with each other. Norway was eventually ceded to Sweden and only became independent in 1905; Finland meanwhile became independent of the Russian empire in 1918, the year Iceland became independent of Denmark.
The Baltic Sea is the region's lifeline. An almost enclosed, shallow body of water, low in salinity and stretching more than 440,000 square kilometers, it harbor many secrets of Europe's stormy past. On its murky bottom lie the remnants of centuries-old battles, including two world wars.
The word 'baltic' comes from a proto-Indo-European root, bait-, meaning 'white', and points to the comparatively homogenous nature of the area's population. While much has been made about recent waves of immigration to Sweden and Denmark the region has a striking absence of visible minorities.
Consequently, locals like to emphasize regional differences, how Latvians are unlike their Estonian neighbors, who in turn distance themselves from their Finnish cousins, to whom they are ethnically and linguistically related. The Finns are the Scandinavian odd one out, as it were, quite apart from the Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes who are linguistically and politically related. Further afield, Icelanders revel in their infamously remote natures, and Greenland's population is 85 per cent Inuit.
It's a heady mix that ensures everything is possible on a journey to the region - and that there will be a lot of fun along the way.
What is the topic of the text?
(A) the general information about Scandinavian countries
(B) the political condition of Scandinavian Countries
(C) the description of Scandinavian landscape
(D) the origin of Scandinavian people.
(E) the role of Scandinavian countries in the two world wars
Why would the author mention Jean-Paul Sartre in paragraph 1?
(A) to mention one famous person that was related to Scandinavia
(B) to emphasize that Scandinavian landscape is monumental
(C) to show that Scandinavia is the birthplace of famous person
(D) to illustrate the history of Scandinavian countries
(E) to demonstrate the importance of Jean-Paul Sartre to Scandinavian people
What does “at odds” in paragraph 5 mean?
(A) in conflict
(B) make certain
(C) offer a bet
(D) in awkward situation
(E) in occasion
“The region has a striking absence of visible minorities”. (paragraph 7) What is the relevance of this information to paragraph 7?
(A) it demonstrates that Scandinavia countries are linguistically and politically related
(B) it shows the political relationship between Sweden and Denmark
(C) it is the origin of the word “Baltic”
(D) it is the result from striking regional differences among Scandinavian regions
(E) it causes the differences among Scandinavian regions more apparent