- Latihan Soal
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Jim : “You are very smart, but you really need to improve your English.”
Kim : “What do you mean?”
From the conversation above, Jim is trying to express …
Situation : Your friend is presenting in front of the class. He seems nervous and he doesn’t speak clearly.
To criticize him, you may say the following, EXCEPT …
(A) next time you may want to brush up your presentation skill before standing in front of the class
(B) your presentation was awful
(C) I should have known better
Aria : “Mr. Parkman, can I bother you with something?”
Mr. Parkman : “Certainly.”
Aria : “… Do you know why the government didn’t lower our export taxes?”
To express curiosity the followings can replace the blank, EXCEPT …
(A) I want to know something
(B) I’ve been meaning to ask you
(C) can I talk to you?
Hurley : “Why do we have certain age to be considered an adult?”
Ilyas : “I don’t know. Let me think.”
Hurley : “...“
To talk about possibilities, the best expression to fill the gap is …
(A) Is it possible for people older than adult age to still think like children?
(B) Do you think we are capable of doing this job?
(C) Can we stop doing our homework?
Joan : “No doubt. She is at home.”
Kyle : “How do you know that?”
Joan : “Well, I just feel it.”
Based on the conversation above, Joan …
(A) is making an assessment
(B) is making a prediction
(C) is making a speculation
By Tom Harris.
Humans have been wearing armor for thousands of years. Ancient tribes fastened animal hide and plant material around their bodies when they went out on the hunt, and the warriors of ancient Rome and medieval Europe covered their torsos in metal plates before going into battle. By the 1400s, armor in the Western world had become highly sophisticated. With the right armor, you were nearly invincible.
All that changed with the development of cannons and guns in the 1500s. These weapons hurl projectiles at a high rate of speed, giving them enough energy to penetrate thin layers of metal. You can increase the thickness of traditional armor materials, but they soon become too cumbersome and heavy for a person to wear. It wasn’t until the 1960s that engineers developed a reliable bullet-resistant armor that a person could wear comfortably. Unlike traditional armor, this soft body armor is not made out of pieces of metal, it is formed from advanced woven fibers that can be sewn into vests and other soft clothing.
Soft body armor is a fairly mystifying concept: How can a soft piece of clothing stop bullets? The principle at work is actually quite simple. At its heart, a piece of bullet-proof material is just a very strong net.
To see how this works, think of a soccer goal. The back of the goal consist of a net formed by many long lengths of tether, interlaced with each other and fastened to the goal frame. When you kick the soccer ball into the goal, the ball has a certain amount of energy, in the form of forward inertia. When the ball hits the net, it pushes back on the tether lines at that particular point. Each tether extends from one side of the frame to the other, dispersing the energy from the point of impact over a wide area.
The energy is further dispersed because the tethers are interlaced. When the ball pushes on a horizontal length of tether, that tether pulls on every interlaced vertical tether. These tethers in turn pull on all the connected horizontal tethers. In this way, the whole net works to absorb the ball’s inertial energy, no matter where the ball hits.
If you were to put a piece of bulletproof material under a powerful microscope, you would see a similar structure. Long strands of fiber are interlaced to form a dense net. A bullet is traveling much faster than a soccer ball, of course, so the net needs to be made from stronger material. The most famous material used in body armor is DuPont’s KEVLAR fiber. KEVLAR is lightweight, like a traditional clothing fiber, but it is five times stronger than a piece of steel of the same weight When interwoven into a dense net, this material can absorb a great amount of energy.
In addition to stopping the bullet from reaching your body, a piece of body armor also has to protect against blunt trauma caused by the force of the bullet.
When you kick a ball into a soccer goal, the net is pushed back pretty far, slowing the ball down gradually. This is a very efficient design for a goal because it keeps the ball from bouncing out into the field. But bulletproof material can’t give this much because the vest would push too far into the wearer’s both at the point of impact. Focusing the blunt trauma of the impact in a small area can cause severe internal injuries.
Bulletproof vests have to spread the blunt trauma out over the whole vest so that the force isn’t felt too intensely in any one spot. To do this, the bulletproof material must have a very tight weave. Typically, the individual fibers are twisted, increasing their density and their thickness at each point. To make it even more rigid, the material is coated with a resin substance and sandwiched between two layers of plastic film.
A person wearing body armor will still feel the energy of a bullet’s impact, of course, but over the whole torso rather than in a specific area. If everything works correctly, the victim won’t be seriously hurt. Since no one layer can move a good distance, the vest has to slow the bullet down using many different layers. Each “net” slows the bullet a little bit more, until the bullet finally stops. The material also causes the bullet to deform at the point of the impact Essentially, the bullet spreads out at the tip, in the same way a piece of day spreads out if you throw It against a wall. This process, which further reduces the energy of the bullet, is called “mushrooming.”
To sum up, modern soft body armor consists of several layers of super-strong webbing. This material disperses the energy of a bullet over a wide area, preventing penetration and dissipating blunt trauma. This sort of armor, as well as hard armor, ranges considerably in effectiveness, depending on the materials used as well as the armor design. However, no bulletproof vest is completely impenetrable, and there is no piece of body armor that will make you invulnerable to attack.
What is the best title for the text?
(A) How Body Armor Works
(B) Why Body Armor Exists
(C) How We Can Protect Ourselves
(D) Body Armor and Soccer
(E) Soft Armor and Hard Armor
The followings are TRUE according to the text, EXCEPT …
(A) The development of cannons and guns in the 1500s gave rise to the need of better body armor
(B) body armor will never make you completely impenetrable
(C) in 1400s even with the best armor, people are not totally invulnerable
(D) Kevlar fiber is the only material used in body armor
(E) modern soft body armor contains more than one layer
Why would the author mention “soccer goal” in paragraph 4?
(A) to show the similarities between soccer goal and body armor
(B) to make the readers understand the concept of body armor by explaining a similar and more common example
(C) to make the readers discuss the difference between soccer goal and body armor
(D) to make the readers aware of the similarities and differences between soccer goal and body armor
(E) to make the readers realize the importance of body armor to the existence of soccer goals
The conclusion can be found in paragraph …
(A) first paragraph
(B) last paragraph
(C) first and last paragraphs
(D) first and second paragraphs
(E) this text has no conclusion
By Clint Pumphrey
Let’s say you’re shopping online for shoes. After browsing a few stores for just the right pair, you surf over to an article on your favorite news site. There, like magic, an advertisement appears for the very same shoes you were admiring just moments ago. “That’s funny” you tell yourself before clicking through to a weather site for the weekend forecast. Then, wedged between sunny Saturday and stormy Sunday, you see yet another ad for the shoes. You’re not going crazy; you’ve just experienced the wonder of custom Internet advertising.
Targeted advertising has been part of the Internet experience since the late 1990s. Back then, companies tried to reach out to consumers online in much the same way they had on TV: by choosing ads that likely appealed to the broadest part of their audience. In other words, since fly fishing shows featured ads for rods and trips to Alaska, then so would fly fishing Web sites. Then, in the early 2000s, Internet advertising got a little smarter. Companies began using browsing habits and other data collected from users to make ads more personalized, and promotions for shoes and all kinds of other products and services began following people across the Web.
Today, custom Internet advertising is widespread, and the public is beginning to notice. According to a 2012 Pew Internet and American Life Project report, 59 percent of Internet users said they observed targeted advertising while surfing the Web. Some activists see the practice as an invasion of privacy since it relies so heavily on the collection of personal information, but advertisers insist that its harmless. So, which is it?
In order to deliver custom ads, companies first need to know something about you. Here are a few ways they gather that information:
Clickstream Data. In custom advertising, the term clickstream refers to a record of Web pages you’ve visited. This data is collected using a tiny text file called a cookie, which a site sends to your computer so it can track your movements among its pages. There are two types of cookies: first-party cookies, which are sent by the site domain in the address bar, and third-party cookies, which come from other domains that have embedded ads or images on the page. Marketing companies like DoubleClick, Which advertise on sites across the Web, use third-party cookies to compile surprisingly complete records of users’ browsing habits. This information helps them tailor advertising to specific patrons. For example, if a user’s clickstream record includes a lot of sports Web sites, he or she may see more advertisements for team jerseys and game tickets, even when viewing something unrelated, like the weather.
Search Data. A 2011 Pew Internet survey found that 92 percent of adults used search engines when online, so it’s no wonder that sites like Google, Yahoo’ and MSN have gotten into the advertising business. They analyze search terms and user habits to place targeted advertising alongside regular search results and often allow companies to pay them for a higher position among the results for particular keywords. That’s why, when you do a search for “sleeping bags,” larger outdoor companies often appear first, and advertisements for sleeping bags line the margins of the page.
Profile Data. When you create a profile on a social networking site such as Facebook you probably enter information about your age, religion, education, political views, interests and favorite movies, music and books so your friends can get to know you better. What you may not know is that these sites also use that data to provide you with custom advertising. For example, it you list one of your interests as “board games,” don’t be surprised to see ads for Scrabble, Monopoly or Life.
The best title for the text above is …
(A) How You Give Your Personal Information Voluntarily to the Internet
(B) How Advertisers Show You Custom Ads
(C) How We Shop Online
(D) How Advertisement Changes the Way We Explore the Internet
(E) How Advertising Emerged
What is implied from the text?
(A) people who shop for shoes online are the only people who get custom ads
(B) targeted advertising had been around before 1990s
(C) online ads are more personalized in the early 2000s
(D) some internet users want to ban custom ads because it is an invasion of privacy
(E) custom ads are harmful
The underlined word “invasion” in paragraph 3 most nearly means …
Which one is FALSE about how advertisers obtain information about you?
(A) clickstream data is collected through cookies
(B) what you search in the search engines may decide what advertisements you see on the search results
(C) your purchase history contributes to product ads that you see on certain websites
(D) personal information on social networking sites may decide the ads you see on the Internet
(E) if you have a social networking site, you will see ads for Scrabble, Monopoly, or life
You will have to pay higher annual tax _______ you buy a mansion. Take your time to think about purchasing it.
(B) because of
(D) so that
_________ Janice Blue is a doctor, she smokes a lot.
(B) Now that
________ the game before, I don’t want to play it again.
(A) Having played
(D) Have played
Should the Driving Age Be Raised?
Many teenagers fell victims to car accidents. Some say they are getting behind the wheel too early.
Now Adrian Lund, a president of Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, proposes the increase of driving age:
"Although most teenagers don't like the idea of waiting longer to get their licenses, raising the driving age to 17 or 18 would reduce crashes involving young drivers and, in turn, save lives.
Most states allow driving at age 16, 17, or somewhere in between, although the minimum age in South Dakota is only 14 and 3 months. Only New Jersey holds off until 17. Last year, the Insurance Institute of Highway Safety conducted a review of research on the subject, and it clearly indicates that an older driving age substantially reduces crash rates for young drivers.
The same conclusion has been reached in Great Britain, where the driving age is 17, and in the rest of the European Union, where most nations set the driving age at 18. The trade-off is, of course, less mobility, but surveys of New Jersey teens show that they're just as active in school, work, and social activities as teens in surrounding states.
Research indicates that when teens begin driving at a later age, they're less likely to get into crashes during their first years on the road. Some say more driver education is the answer. Studies, however, show no difference in crash rates for teens who take drivers education, compared with those who don't.
In 2007, more than 4,000 teens died as occupants of passenger vehicles; 61 percent of them were in vehicles driven by other teens. Ultimately, it's a political question: Is increased mobility worth the additional deaths? It may be a tough sell for teens, but raising the driving age makes sense."
Despite the argument, Alex Koroknay-Palicz, the Executive Director at National Youth Rights Association voices his opposition:
"Traffic accidents are a big problem in the United States. In 2007, there were more than 6 million accidents on America's roads, resulting in more than 40,000 deaths. There is an entire federal agency, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, devoted to reducing these numbers, but it has proven very difficult. So some people just want a quick fix. It's easy for politicians and interest groups to put the blame on young people, who can't fight back. Blame a group that doesn't have high-powered lobbyists to defend them. Blame a group of people who can't even vote.
The truth is that the vast majority of teens are safe and responsible drivers. Those who want to raise the driving age have labeled teens guilty before they've gotten into an accident or before they've even sat behind the wheel of a car. They believe that because of your birth date, you are by definition dangerous.
But driving tests, which everyone has to pass to get a license, are supposed to weed out dangerous drivers whether they're 16 or 30. Besides, it's inexperience, not age, which causes many accidents. Raising the driving age would just create inexperienced, accident-prone drivers at age 18 instead of 16.
Cars are necessary for mobility in this country. Teens need the ability to drive just as much as anyone else–to get to school, to get to work, to get to sports or band practice, or just to go out with their friends. Politicians should roll up their sleeves and tackle the bigger problem of driving safety in general–and pick on someone their own size."
Who is against driving-age increase?
(A) Adrian Lund.
(B) Alex Koroknay-Palicz
“After you woke up, you should call your mother.”
Change the adverb clause above into adverbial phrase!
(A) after wake up, you should call your mother
(B) after waking up, you should call your mother
(C) waking up, you should call your mother
(D) no change