- Latihan Soal
L.L Zamenhof, the creator of language Esperanto, would later say that he had dreamed of a word language since he was a child. At first he considered a revival of Latin, but after learning it in school he decided it was too complicated to be a common means of international communication. When he learned English, he realized that verb conjugations were unnecessary, and that grammatical systems could be much simpler than he had expected. He still had the problem of memorizing a large vocabulary, until he noticed two Russian signs labeled Швейцарская–from швейцар, which means porter’s house and porter- and Кондитерская–from кондитер, which means a confectioner’s. He then realized that a moderate use of affixes could greatly decrease the number of root words needed for communication. He chose to take his vocabulary from Romance and Germanic, the languages that were most widely taught in schools around the world and would therefore be recognizable to the largest number of people.
Zamenhof taught an early version of the language to his high-school classmates. Then, for several years, he worked on translations and poetry to refine his creation. In 1895 he wrote, "I worked for six years perfecting and testing the language, even though it had seemed to me in 1878 that it was already completely ready." When he was ready to publish, the Czarist censors would not allow it. Stymied, he spent his time in translating works such as the Bible and Shakespeare. This enforced delay led to continued improvement. In July 1887 he published his Unua Libro, a basic introduction to the language. This was essentially the language spoken today.
What is the topic of the passage?
(A) the revival of Latin
(B) the early creation of Esperanto
(C) the early life of L.L Zamenhof
(D) Esperanto versus English
(E) the vocabulary of Esperanto
What can be inferred from the first paragraph above?
(A) Romance and Germanic languages were the sources of vocabulary in Esperanto
(B) Esperanto had been widely used globally
(C) Russian language had a large vocabulary
(D) English had unnecessary verb conjugations
(E) Latin wasn’t quite used by people at that time
Only humans have a spoken, symbolic language. Scientists have long thought that non-human primates (3) … much less sophisticated communication systems. True, but chimpanzees use gestures and many voice sounds in the wild, (4) … other apes use sounds to communicate territorial information. Chimpanzees seem to have a (5) … talent for learning symbolic language under controlled conditions. A famous chimpanzee named Washoe (6) … to communicate with humans, using no less than 175 sign language gestures similar to those of American sign language. After more than a year, Washoe could associate particular signs with activities, such as eating and drinking. Another chimpanzee (7) … Sarah was taught to read and write with plastic symbols and acquired a vocabulary of 130 different words, to the extent that she obeyed sequences of written instructions given with the symbols.
(B) had been
The 44.5-carat Hope Diamond is the world’s largest blue diamond. It is also one of the most popular attractions in the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History in Washington D.C. The Hope Diamond is flawless and priceless. However, ownership of this gem has not always been a stroke of great fortune.
The Hope Diamond is a remnant of a 112-carat Indian diamond stolen from a statue of me Hindu goddess, Sita. The angry goddess cast a spell of misfortune on anyone who acquired me gem. The spell began to work when the stone arrived in France. It was sold to the French King, Louis XIV. Louis XIV had the gem cut into a 67-carat jewel. After wearing it once, he became sick and died of small pox. Next, me stone was passed down to Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette. Their bad misfortune was to lose their heads in the French Revolution.
The gem was stolen again at the end of the French Revolution. It reappeared in London 38 years later It was recut and bought by a British banker and gem collector, Henry Thomas Hope. We do not know about any misfortune Henry Hope suffered. However, in 1890 Lord Francis Hope inherited me Hope Diamond His wife soon ran off with another man. Lord Hope was later forced to sell the diamond to avoid bankruptcy. His unfaithful wife died in poverty.
The ongoing woeful story of the diamond’s owner continued for decades. An Eastern European prince gave it to an exotic dancer. But Later he became jealous and shot her to death Another owner had a car accident and died with his wife and children. Finally, in 1911, Evalyn Walsh McLean purchased the Hope Diamond. She was a wealthy American socialite. She was sometimes unconventional. For example, she had her dog wear the diamond to greet party guests. She said she did not believe in the diamonds curse. However, she suffered several personal tragedies while she owned the gem. Her son died in a car accident. Her daughter died from an overdose of sleeping pills, and her husband went insane.
The diamond’s final owner, Harry Winston bought the stone alter Dame McLean died in 1947. He donated It to me Smithsonian 11 years later. Without explaining his actions, Winston sent the stone in a plain brown wrapper to the museum. The Hope Diamond now holds a place of honor In the museum’s remodeled Hall of Gems. perhaps bringing an end to its colorful yet sometimes tragic history.
The Hope Diamond was originally …
(A) a jewel exhibited in a museum in Washington, D.C
(B) a bigger gem stone attached to an Indian statue
(C) a 112-carat diamond owned by European kings
(D) meant to be auctioned to the royal families in France
(E) a sacred object worshipped by Indian people
The main topic of the whole text is …
(A) the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
(B) me diamond from the statue of the Hindu goddess
(C) the cutting of the Hope Diamond into smaller carats
(D) the tragic history of the worlds largest blue diamond
(E) The Kings who had owned me Hope Diamond
The following were misfortunes happening to the owners of the Hope Diamond, EXCEPT …
(A) death from smallpox
(B) beheaded in a revolution
(C) broken marriage
(D) a fatal car accident
(E) getting married to an exotic dancer
Which of the following statements is TRUE about the Hope Diamond …
(A) Dame McLean was the most cursed person among the owners of the diamond
(B) not only people but also an animal had worn the Hope Diamond
(C) having been the owner of the diamond for a decade, Winston donated it to the Smithsonian
(D) the Hope Diamond maintained its original shape after it had been cut
(E) the Hope Diamond has never been sold
“To cast a spell of misfortune on someone” in paragraph 2 means …
(A) to wish someone bad luck
(B) to do magic by saying special words
(C) to put a curse on someone
(D) to throw bad words to someone
(E) to look at something quickly
Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria (21 August 1858 - 30 January 1889) was the son and heir of Emperor Franz Josef of Austria and Elisabeth of Austria. His death, apparently through suicide, along with that of his mistress, Baroness Mary Vetsera at his Mayerling hunting lodge in 1889 made international headlines, (13) … international conspiracy rumors and ultimately may have sealed the long-term fate of the Habsburg monarchy.
(14) … his deeply conservative father, Crown Prince Rudolf held distinctively liberal views mat were closer to those of his mother. Nevertheless his relationship with her was strained and contained (15) … warmth. On May 10, 1881, he married Princess Stephanie of Belgium, a daughter of King Leopold II, with all the pomp and splendor of a state wedding Rudolf appeared to be genuinely In love, but his mother regarded her new daughter-in-law as a “clumsy oaf.” By the time their only child, the Archduchess Elizabeth, was born on September 2, 1883, the couple had drifted apart, and he found solace in drink and female companionship.
In 1887, Rudolf bought Mayerling and adapted it into a hunting lodge. In The autumn of 1888, the 30-year-old crown prince met the (16) … Baroness Marie Vetsera, known by the more fashionable Anglophile name Mary. From the start. Mary adored him. It was almost certainly not the great romance of his life, but Rudolf did have feelings for her, and was touched by her limitless, almost.
According to official reports. both their deaths were a result of the emperors demand that the couple end the relationship. The crown prince, as part of a suicide pact, shot his mistress in the head. then (17) … Rudolf was officially (18) … to have been in a state of “mental unbalance” In order to enable burial in the Imperial Crypt (Kapuzinergruft) of the Capuchin Church in Vienna. Mary’s body (19) … out of Mayerling in the middle of the night, and secretly buried in the cemetery of Holy Cross Abbey in Heiligenkreuz and the Emperor had Mayerling converted into a convent of Carmelite nuns.
Following the death of the emperors only son, the marriage of Franz Josef and Elisabeth collapsed (20) …, with the empress spending much of her time abroad, particularly in England and Ireland where she loved to hunt. The new heir presumptive to the Austrian, Bohemian, and Hungarian thrones was Archduke Karl Ludwig, the eldest surviving brother of the emperor. After Karl Ludwigs death, his oldest son, Archduke Franz Ferdinand became heir presumptive. His assassination in 1914 led to a chain of events that produced World War I.