- Latihan Soal
Is it a mistake to run in rain if you want to stay drier? One idea is that you should run because you spend less time in the rain so you will stay drier. On the other hand, this is true only if the rain lands only on the top of your head and shoulders. If you run, you will end up running into more raindrops on the larger surface around your face, chest, and front of your legs.
Two North Carolina researchers looked into this question with one walking and the other running over a measured distance while wearing cotton sweatsuits. They then weighed their clothing and found that the walking person’s sweatsuit weighed more. (1) …
(A) that is why accidents usually happen to people who run in the rain
(B) this means whether you run or walk in the rain, your clothes will absorb the same amount of raindrops
(C) why didn’t the researchers investigate other cloth materials, such as nylon or silk?
(D) this means you should run in the rain to stay drier
(E) this means you should not walk or run in the rain if you want to stay healthy
What is the best title for the passage?
(A) Walking in the Rain Makes You Stay Drier
(B) Should You Run or Walk in the Rain?
(C) Walking and Running
(D) Cotton Sweatsuits and Running in the Rain
(E) A Research about Rains
With quicksand, the more you struggle in it, the faster you will sink. your body will float in it because your body is less (3) … than the quicksand.
How many times have you watched a movie where the hero (4) … down into a pit of quicksand, only to be saved at the last minute by grabbing a nearby tree branch and pulling himself out?
If you believed what you saw in movies, you might think that quicksand is a (5) … creature that can suck you down into a bottomless pit, never to be heard from again. But no-the actual properties of quicksand are not quite those portrayed in the movies.
Quicksand is not quite the fearsome force of nature that you sometimes see on the big screen. In fact, the treacherous grit is rarely deeper than a few feet.
Quicksand can (6) … almost anywhere if the right conditions are present. It is basically just ordinary sand that has been so saturated with water that the friction between sand particles is reduced the resulting sand is a mushy mixture of sand and water that can no longer support any weight.
If you step into quicksand, it won’t suck you down. (7) …, your movements will cause you to dig yourself deeper into it.
Endurance expert suggests drugs could help 'lazy people' exercise In what has been described as 'doping for lazy people' a University of Kent endurance expert has advocated the use of psychoactive drugs to encourage sedentary people to exercise.
Together with lack of time, physical exertion is one of the main perceived barriers to exercise. This is not surprising because humans evolved to be 'lazy', i.e. to conserve energy. Professor Samuele Marcora suggests that reducing perception of effort during exercise using caffeine or other psychoactive drugs (e.g. methylphenidate and modafinil) could help many people stick to their fitness plans.
Whilst acknowledging that such an intervention is both drastic and controversial, Professor Marcora points out that perception of effort is one of the main reasons why most people choose sedentary activities for their leisure time. Compared to watching television (zero effort), even moderate-intensity physical activities like walking require considerable effort. He says finding a way that makes people with very low motivation to do even moderate exercise, like walking, could be particularly useful.
Similarly, a reduction in perception of effort would be very helpful to the many people who find exercise difficult because they are overweight and/or exercise after work in a state of mental fatigue.
Professor Marcora also states that whilst there is no strong ethical opposition to the use of psychoactive drugs to help quit smoking (nicotine) or treat obesity (appetite suppressants), the negative perception of doping in sport may prevent the use of stimulants and other psychoactive drugs to treat physical inactivity.
Given that physical inactivity is responsible for twice as many deaths as obesity, he hopes that psychopharmacological treatment for physical inactivity will be considered fairly and seriously rather than immediately rejected on the basis of unrelated ethical considerations about doping in sport.
Professor Samuele Marcora is Director of Research at the University of Kent's School of Sport and Exercise Sciences. His paper Can Doping be a Good Thing? Using Psychoactive Drugs to Facilitate Physical Activity Behaviour has been published in the journal Sports Medicine.
Which one is NOT TRUE according to the text?
(A) walking is an example of moderate-intensity exercise
(B) modafinil is one of psychoactive drugs
(C) treating nicotine addiction may require psychoactive drugs
(D) physical inactivity is more fatal than obesity
(E) there is no ethical opposition to the use of psychoactive drugs to help smoking addiction
What is the reason behind physical inactivity stated in paragraph 3?
(A) the amount of effort seems too high
(B) people don’t have enough time
(C) people are overweight
(D) people can’t exercise after work
(E) the phychoactive drugs are still illegal
Why does the use of psychoactive drugs to treat physical inactivity may be rejected?
(A) because physical inactivity may be responsible for deaths
(B) because the use of psychoactive drugs are not tolerated, as we can see in nicotine addiction and obesity cases
(C) because there is negative perception of using psychoactive drugs related to sport
(D) because the real culprit is obesity
(E) drug treatment of physical inactivity has been considered fairly and seriously
The underline word “sedentary” (paragraph 1) most likely means …
What is the topic of the text about?
(A) misperceptions of effort in exercising
(B) the arguments for using psychoactive drugs to exercise
(C) the reasons why laziness is harmful
(D) why psychoactive drugs manipulate people’s minds
(E) tackling addiction in physical exercise
(a). The age (13) … children learn a second language can have a significant bearing on the structure of their adult brain, according to a new joint study by the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital–The Neuro at McGill University and Oxford University. The majority of people in the world learn to speak more than one language (14) … their lifetime. Many do so with great proficiency particularly if the languages are learned simultaneously or from early in development. (b).
The study concludes that the pattern of brain development is similar if you learn one or two language from birth. However, learning a second language later on in childhood after gaining proficiency in the first (native) language does in fact modify the brain's structure, specifically the brain's inferior frontal cortex. The left inferior frontal cortex became thicker and the right inferior frontal cortex became thinner. The cortex is a multi-layered mass of neurons that plays a major role in cognitive functions such as thought, language, (15) …, and memory. (c).
(d). The study suggests that the task of acquiring a second language after infancy (16) … new neural growth and connections among neurons in ways seen in acquiring (17) … such as juggling. The study's authors speculate that the difficulty that some people have in learning a second language later in life could be explained at the structural level.
"The later in childhood that the second language is acquired, the (18) … are the changes in the inferior frontal cortex," said Dr. Denise Klein, researcher in The Neuro's Cognitive Neuroscience Unit and a lead author on the paper published in the journal Brain and Language. (e).
Using a software program developed at The Neuro, the study examined MRI scans of 66 bilingual and 22 monolingual men and women living in Montreal. The work was supported by a (20) … from the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada and from an Oxford McGill Neuroscience Collaboration Pilot project.
(D) with which
(E) at which
(A) complexity motor skills
(B) complex motor skills
(C) skill motor complex
(D) skilled motor complex
(E) skill complex motor
The sentence “Our results provide structural evidence that age of acquisition is crucial in laying down the structure for language learning”. Should be put in …