- Latihan Soal
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Black mambas typically eat small mammals and birds, though according to Blue Planet Biomes, there have been reports of mambas found with whole parrots or full-grown cobras in their stomachs. (1) In his book Black Mambas (Checkerboard, 2006), Adam G. Klein wrote that black mambas hunt by biting their prey and injecting venom, then releasing it. (2) They then follow it until it becomes paralyzed or dies, at which point they eat it. (3) It doesn’t usually take prey very long to die after being bitten by a black mamba. Black mambas devour their food whole. (4) Black mambas have no specific predators. (5) They have flexible jaws that they can dislocate in order to fit food up to four times the size of their head into their mouth.
Which one is irrelevant from the passage?
(A) sentence 1
(B) sentence 2
(C) sentence 3
(D) sentence 4
(E) sentence 5
The festival has many purposes, most prominently, it celebrates the beginning of Spring. In 17TH century literature, it was identified as a festival that celebrated agriculture, commemorated good spring harvest and the fertile land. Hindus believe it is a time of enjoying spring’s abundant colours and saying farewell to winter. To many Hindus, Holi festivities mark the beginning of the new year as well as an occasion to reset and renew ruptured relationships, end conflicts, and rid themselves of accumulated emotional impurities from the past. It also has a religious purpose, symbolically signified by the legend of Holika. The night before Holi, bonfires are lit in a ceremony known as Holika Dahan. The ritual Holika Dahan symbolises the victory of good over evil. People gather around the fire to sing and dance.
The passage should begin with …
(A) Holi is a place where Hindus pray
(B) Holi is an important festival in India
(C) there are some important festivals celebrated by Hindus
(D) many religions have their own festivals
(E) festivals have their own meanings
“Instead, they are named for the coloration of the inside of their mouths, which is a deep, inky black,” explained Viernum. “Similar to cottonmouths, when threatened a mamba will open its mouth to show the black lining as a warning signal.”
The best sentence to begin the paragraph should be …
(A) in contrast to their names, Black Mambas do not have any black coloration anywhere inside or outside their body
(B) contrary to what its name would suggest, Black Mambas are actually brownish in color
(C) Black Mambas are the blackest-skinned snakes on earth
(D) Black Mambas are one of the most venomous snakes in the world
(E) humans have threatened the population of Black Mambas
Have you ever curled your index finger towards someone with your palm facing up? (1)Curling your index finger with the palm facing up is a common gesture that people in the United States use to beckon someone to come closer. (2)However, it is considered a rude gesture in Slovakia, China, East Asia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Phillipines, and many other parts of the world. It’s also considered extremely impolite to use this gesture with people. (3)It is used only to beckon dogs in many Asian countries—and using it in the Philippines can actually get you arrested! (4)The thumbs-up gesture signifies a job well done. (5)The appropriate way to beckon someone in much of Europe, and parts of Asia, is to face the palm of your hand downward and move your fingers in a scratching motion.
Which is irrelevant from the text?
(A) sentence 1
(B) sentence 2
(C) sentence 3
(D) sentence 4
(E) sentence 5
In free diving, men and women descend as deep as they can on a single breath. Not infrequently, when they reach the surface after a deep dive they pass out. In a competition, if they pass out before five seconds after reaching the surface their dive doesn’t count.
There are eight disciplines in free diving, three of which take place indoors in a pool and involve holding one’s breath and swimming as far as one can underwater on a single breath. The other five are deep-water disciplines. Two of them, variable weight and no limits, are too dangerous for competitions a diver can only attempt a record. In variable weight, a diver is pulled down by a metal sled, then swims to the surface. In no limits, the diver also rides a sled but ascends by means of an air bag. In the remaining three disciplines, the divers descend by pulling on a rope, or wearing weights. The most prestigious event is constant weight, in which a diver wearing fins or a monofin, a device that looks like a mermaid’s tail, must return to the surface with the weight he or she wore to the bottom. Natalia Molchanova, who held the record for breath holding (nine minutes and two seconds), excelled at this, but she was pretty much better than everyone else at nearly all the tasks. She was challenged from time to time by other women, but never really seriously. She was so consistent that she was sometimes called “The Machine”.
The paragraph following this passage most likely discusses …
(A) the definition of free diving
(B) the disciplines in free diving
(C) indoor free diving
(D) deep-water free diving
(E) Natalia Molchanova’s career in free
Seppuku, stomach-or abdomen-cutting, is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment. Seppuku was originally reserved for samurai. Part of the samurai bushido honor code, seppuku was used either voluntarily by samurai to die with honor rather than fall into the hands of their enemies or as a form of capital punishment for samurai who had committed serious offenses, or performed because they had brought shame to themselves. The ceremonial disembowelment, which is usually a part of a more elaborate ritual and performed in front of spectators, consists of plunging a short blade, traditionally a tanto, into the abdomen and drawing the blade from left to right, slicing open the abdomen. People are usually familiar with two kinds of seppuku.
While the voluntary seppuku described is the best known form, in practice the most common form of seppuku was obligatory seppuku. (1)It is used as a form of capital punishment for disgraced samurai, especially for those who commited a serious offense such as unprovoked murder, rape, robbery, corruption, or treason. (2)The samurai were generally told of their offense in full and given a set time to commit seppuku, usually before sunset on any given day. (3)On occasion, if the sentenced individuals were uncooperative or outright refused to end their own lives, it was not unheard of for them to be restrained and the seppuku carried out by an executioner, or for the actual execution to be carried out instead by decapitation while retaining only the trappings—or ornamentation—of seppuku. (4)Even the short sword laid out in front of the offender could be replaced with a fan. Unlike voluntary seppuku, seppuku carried out as capital punishment did not necessarily pardon the offender’s family of the crime. (5)Seppuku is also known as harakiri. Depending on the severity of the crime, all or part of the property of the condemned could be confiscated, and the family would be punished by being stripped of rank, sold into long-term servitude, or execution.
The missing paragraph 2 most likely talks about …
(A) the two kinds of seppuku
(B) the obligatory seppuku
(C) the voluntary seppuku
(D) the definition of seppuku
(E) seppuku in countries other than Japan
Which one is irrelevant from paragraph 3?
(A) sentence 1
(B) sentence 2
(C) sentence 3
(D) sentence 4
(E) sentence 5
It was in the climate of the Enlightenment political philosophies described above, and in the middle of the growing realization of individuals’ rights as citizens, that the two great 18th-century revolutions took place.
The American Revolution of 1775-83 followed more than a decade of growing estrangement between the British crown and a large and influential segment of its North American colonies. In a royal proclamation of 1763, for instance, a line was drawn marking the limit of settlement from the British colonies, beyond which Indian trade was to be conducted through British-appointed commisioners.
[source: Grayling, A. C. Ideas That Matter: The Concepts That Shape the 21st Century. New York: Basic, 2012. Print.]
The paragraph preceding the text above most likely talks about…
(A) climate change
(B) the Enlightenment political philosophies
(D) city and its citizens
(E) the American and the British
The paragraph following the text above most likely talks about …
(A) the enlightenment political philosophies
(B) the national song of the British
(C) the World War II
(D) another 18th-century revolution
(E) a prehistoric war
Orcas, or killer whales, are the largest of the dolphins and one of the world’s most powerful predators. They feast on marine mammals such as seals, sea lions, and even whales, employing teeth that can be four inches (ten centimeters) long. They are known to grab seals right off the ice. They also eat fish, squid, and seabirds.
Though they often frequent cold, coastal waters, orcas can be found from the polar regions to the Equator.
Killer whales hunt in deadly pods, family groups of up to 40 individuals ... These different groups may prey on different animals and use different techniques to catch them. Resident pods tend to prefer fish, while transient pods target marine mammals. All pods use effective, cooperative hunting techniques that some liken to the behavior of wolf packs.
Whales make a wide variety of communicative sounds, and each pod has distinctive noises that its members will recognize even at a distance. They use echolocation to communicate and hunt, making sounds that travel underwater until they encounter objects, then bounce back, revealing their location, size, and shape.
Killer whales are protective of their young, and other adolescent females often assist the mother in caring for them. Mothers give birth every three to ten years, after a 17-month pregnancy.
Orcas are immediately recognizable by their distinctive black-and-white coloring and are the intelligent, trainable stars of many aquarium shows. Killer whales have never been extensively hunted by humans.
The best sentence to fill in the missing part in paragraph 3 is …
(A) there appear to be both resident and transient pod population of killer whales
(B) there are three groups of pods in killer whales population
(C) killer whales hunt with wolf packs
(D) killer whales hunt solitarily
(E) there is only one pod population of killer whales
It is only very recently that it has been thought appropriate to teach ethics in government schools. One plausible explanation for this is that traditionally ethics was conceived of as a set of sacred rules and warnings. Out of a desire for religious neutrality, government schools shield away from teaching ethics.
The idea, however, that ethics must be religious, is wrong. For thousands of years philosophers have developed the field of secular ethics. Secular ethics doesn’t depend on the idea that God doesn’t exist, but instead is focused on providing reasons for ethical positions that are not religiously dependent (but may still be compatible with religious views).
Secular ethics is unavoidable. For instance, even if we believe in God’s existence, religious texts are typically incomplete, and sometimes contradictory, on moral questions. To take a biblical example, should a childless widow marry her deceased husband’s brother? Leviticus (xx, 21) says ‘no’, while Deuteronomy (xxv, 5) says ‘yes’. Arbitrating between the two requires something more than religious authority. Furthermore, most religious texts were written at a time when many of today’s most challenging moral questions were inconceivable. Co-opting and applying passages from these texts is increasingly awkward (e.g. ‘What would Jesus think about financial incentives for organ donation, or the use of human enhancement technologies?’). Secular ethics can fill the void.
In a society composed of those from a multitude of religious (and non-religious) backgrounds, secular ethics also provides us with reasons that are open for all. In living together, it is these reasons that are likely to persuade those who don’t share our beliefs about the divine, or the implications.
Secular ethics, then, is necessary. But can it be taught?
The paragraph following the text most probably discusses …
(A) the definition of secular ethics
(B) why we should teach ethics in schools
(C) why secular ethics is important
(D) whether ethics can be taught or not
(E) people should live in peace
Sharks are worth more in the ocean than in a bowl of soup, according to researchers from the University of British Columbia.
A new study, published today in Oryx.
The International Journal of Conservation, shows that shark ecotourism currently generates more than US$314 million annually worldwide and is expected to generate more than double to US$780 million in the next 20 years.
In comparison, the landed value of global shark fisheries is currently US$630 million and has been in decline for the past decade. An estimated 38 million sharks were killed in 2009 to feed the global fin trade alone.
“The emerging shark tourism industry attracts nearly 600,000 shark watchers annually, directly supporting 10,000 jobs,” says Andres Cisneros-Montemayor, a PhD candidate with UBC’s Fisheries Economics Research Unit and lead author of the study. “It is abundantly clear that leaving sharks in the ocean is worth much more than putting them on the menu.”
“Sharks are slow to mature and produce few offspring,” says Rashid Sumaila, senior author and director of UBC’s Fisheries Centre. “The protection of live sharks, especially through dedicated protected areas, can benefit a much wider economic spectrum while helping the species recover.”
The research team from UBC, the University of Hawaii and Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur in Mexico examined shark fisheries and shark ecotourism data from 70 sites in 45 countries. Almost $124 million in tourism dollars were generated annually in the Caribbean from shark tourism, supporting more than 5,000 jobs. In Australia and New Zealand, 29,000 shark watchers help generate almost $40 million in tourism expenditure a year.
From the passage above, the author generally compares the value of …
(A) ocean and soup
(B) shark menus
(C) sharks and jobs
(D) shark ecotourism and shark fishing
(E) tourism and profit
Assuming the information below is TRUE, which one can weaken the writer’s argument?
(A) tourism has significantly decreased tiger population, which costs up to $100 million in the last 10 years
(B) a new data on shark ecotourism reveals that shark ecotourism is the most hazardous activity to the oceanic environment
(C) sharks are also hunted for their fins and then sold as merchandise
(D) many governmental agencies and non-governmental agencies in many countries have supported shark conservation through law and public campaigns
(E) Australia and New Zealand are not only famous for their shark watchers, but also dolphin watchers