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- Latihan Soal
Many foods hold awesome amounts of energy.
What does a burning cheese curl have to do with energy? Ask Joe Cifelli. He’s a professor at St. Joseph’s University in Philadelphia. He also teaches fourth graders about nutrition. The first lesson is setting cheese curls on fire.
Cheese curls burn because they contain energy. “Food is energy,” Cifelli explains. Fire consumes that energy when Cifelli burns a cheese curl. When you eat food, you are putting energy into your body. You use energy in many different ways-running on the playground, walking the dog, and brushing your teeth. Everything your body does requires energy, even breathing and thinking.
Energy is measured in units called calories. Scientists figure out how many calories are in a food by burning it, much as Cifelli does, but they use a device called a bomb calorimeter. That machine measures the heat given off by the burning food.
People on diets often worry about the calories they eat and count calories like wannabe scientists. But calories aren’t bad! In fact, most kids need between 1,600 and 2,500 calories per day to grow and be healthy.
If you eat more calories than you burn off, your body stores that energy. “It’s like gasoline,” Cifelli says. “If you don’t burn it, your body will put it in a storage tank.” Your body turns unused calories into fat for storage.
Having too much fat and being overweight can cause health problems. But you can work to stay at a healthy weight by listening to your body, be active and don’t eat unless you feel hungry. Healthy eating, Cifelli claims, is just a matter of understanding the energy that goes in and the energy that is burned off. “It’s about making choices,” he says.
Joe Cifelli says people are surprised by how much energy is in food. A Hershey Kiss has 26 calories, Cifelli says. That doesn’t sound like much, but if a machine could turn all that energy into power, it could lift a car six feet off the ground! When you eat, your body uses most of that energy to digest your food and keep the trillions of cells in your body running smoothly.
The author uses the statement, “The first lesson is setting cheese curls on fire,” in order to …
(A) cause disbelief in the reader
(B) get the reader’s attention
(C) make the reader feel angry because it is unsafe
(D) encourage the reader to destroy junk food
The author’s purpose in writing this article probably was to …
(A) make fun of overweight people
(B) educate the reader about calories and the body’s need for energy
(C) inform the reader that dieting is safe
(D) help the reader understand that having too much body fat is unsafe
The reason the author describes how the few calories in a Hershey Kiss could turn into enough energy to lift a car six feet off of the ground is to demonstrate …
(A) that chocolate is good for your body
(B) how much activity goes into making candy?
(C) how much energy the human body uses?
(D) how high a heavy person can jump?
Once upon a time there lived a great storyteller whose tales delighted both children and adults. He told a story about an emperor who had a new wardrobe and about a tiny girl who was no taller than a person’s thumb.
That storyteller’s name was Hans Christian Andersen, and his fans have already celebrated the anniversary of his 210th birthday .
People are retold Andersen’s fairy tales in countries such as Denmark and Egypt. Andersen’s fans also commemorated the anniversary with a variety of celebrations. In New York City’s Central Park, storyteller Ellen Shapiro read “The Princess and the Pea” to a crown of children.
In Denmark, 15-foot-tall puppets danced in midair every night from May until September. In Singapore, the post office published a series of Andersen stamps. And in Egypt, the library in Alexandria has displayed Andersen’s books, translated into 150 languages.
“Andersen’s stories have everything, “ Shapiro told Senior Edition. “They are funny and sad and joyous. I never get tired of them.” Storytellers such as Shapiro love carrying on Andersen’s tradition, Shapiro doesn’t memorize her favorite stories, however. Instead, she learns what happens at the beginning, middle and end. She changes the words of a story to fit the audience. Therefore, no two tellings of a story are exactly alike.
The author wrote this article to …
(A) celebrate the life and work of Hans Christian Andersen
(B) inform readers about the 210th anniversary of Andersen’s birth
(C) interest readers in Andersen’s stories
(D) all of the above
The author mentions storyteller Ellen Shapiro partly in order to …
(A) emphasize the importance of telling instead of reading stories
(B) show that “The Princess and the Pea” is autobiographical
(C) promote New York City’s commemoration of Andersen’s birth
(D) find fault with Shapiro for not memorizing the stories
My children have outgrown books in which polar bears and penguins inhabit the same page. But there is an alarming number of them out there and this is one biogeographical crime I cannot forgive.
Polar bears live in the Arctic, near the North Pole. Penguins live in Antarctica and the neighbouring continents, near the South Pole. They are literally poles apart, so don't unite them in fiction just because they look cute together.
From the text above, the author’s tone seems …
Movie Review: Nightcrawler
As Lou Bloom, a freelance TV news cameraman with a nose for graphic tragedy, Jake Gyllenhaal creeped me out big-time. I mean that as high praise. Gyllenhaal, in a poisonously potent performance, acts with morbid excitement. Bloom will crawl into any LA rat hole or car wreck to produce video or dig out a photo he can sell to a TV news director, just to momentarily sate the public’s appetite for gory digital sensation.
If I’m making Nightcrawler sound like a sharp attack against a society that gets the exploitative news it deserves, maybe that’s because it often is. Luckily, the film’s writer and first-time director, Dan Gilroy, is hunting bigger game than cloning Network. Bloom is more akin to the sociopaths in Taxi Driver and Peeping Tom. He fancies himself an artist, arranging the wounded and the dead to the best catch the light and hold the frame he composes with such care and little regard for pesky morality or professional ethics. When you can’t find an accident or a murder, why not create it yourself?
Nightcrawler curves and hisses its way into your head with demonic skill. When the laughs come, they stick in your throat. This is deliciously twisted piece of work. And Gyllenhaal, coiled and ready to spring, is scarily brilliant. He truly is a monster of our time.
What impressions would you form about the author's attitude toward the movie Nightcrawler?
Why does the author mention the movie Network?
(A) to show that Lou Bloom character is similar to characters in Network
(B) to show that Nightcrawler is not a copycat of Network, despite the similarities
(C) to show that Dan Gilroy is much better than Network
(D) to show that Dan Gilroy has managed to create an incredible character like Lou Bloom
It is only very recently that it has been thought appropriate to teach ethics in government schools. One reasonable explanation for this is that traditionally ethics was conceived of as a set of sacred rules and admonitions. Out of a desire for religious neutrality, government schools shied away from teaching ethics.
The idea, however, that ethics must be religious, is wrong. For thousands of years philosophers have developed the field of secular ethics. Secular ethics doesn’t depend on the idea that God doesn’t exist, but instead is focused on providing reasons for ethical positions that are not religiously dependent (but may still be compatible with religious views).
Secular ethics is unavoidable. For instance, even if we believe in God’s existence, religious texts are typically incomplete, and sometimes contradictory, on moral questions. To take a biblical example, should a childless widow marry her deceased husband’s brother? Leviticus (xx, 21) says ‘no’, while Deuteronomy (xxv, 5) says ‘yes’. Judging between the two requires something more than religious authority. Furthermore, most religious texts were written at a time when many of today’s most challenging moral questions were inconceivable. Adopting and applying passages from these texts is increasingly awkward (e.g. ‘What would Jesus think about financial incentives for organ donation, or the use of human enhancement technologies?’). Secular ethics can fill the void.
In a society composed of those from a multitude of religious (and non-religious) backgrounds, secular ethics also provides us with reasons that are open for all. In living together, it is these reasons that are likely to persuade those who don’t share our beliefs about the divine, or the implications.
Secular ethics, then, is necessary. But can it be taught?
The author’s tone in explaining secular ethics is …
Why does the author mention Leviticus and Deuteronomy (paragraph 3)?
(A) to show that bible can be wrong
(B) to demonstrate that deciding between what is right and wrong can be solved by the bible
(C) to exemplify a case in which we need more than religious authority in solving a problem
(D) to nominate the bible as the real source of morality
Competition played a more important role in the evolution of the dog family (wolves, foxes, and their relatives) than climate change, shows a new international study published in PNAS.
An international team including scientist from the Universities of Gothenburg (Sweden), Sao Paulo (Brazil), and Lausanne (Switzerland) analyzed over 2000 fossils and revealed that the arrival of felids-a mammal of cat family-to North America from Asia had a deadly impact on the diversity of the dog family, contributing to the extinction of as many as 40 of their species.
“We usually expect climate changes to play an overwhelming role in the evolution of biodiversity. Instead, competition among different carnivore species proved to be even more important for canids, a mammal of dog family” says leading author Daniele Silvestro at the Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
The dog family originated in North America about 40 million of years ago and reached a maximum diversity around 22 million of years ago, when more than 30 species inhabited the continent. Today, only 9 species of the dog family live in North America. They progressively increased in body size and specialized into becoming large predators. Some of them exceeded 30 kg and were among the largest carnivores on the North American continent. Although several large carnivores today face a higher extinction risk than smaller species, the authors of the study found no evidence of a similar pattern in ancient canid species.
The evolutionary success o f carnivorous animals is inevitably linked to their ability to obtain food. The limited amount of resources (preys) imposes strong competition among carnivores sharing the same geographic range. For instance African carnivores such as wild dogs, hyenas, lions, and other felids are constantly competing with each other for food. North American carnivores in the past might have followed similar dynamics and much of the competition is found among species of the dog family and from ancient felids and dogs. Interestingly, while felids appeared to have strongly negative impact on the survival of ancient dogs, the opposite is not true. This suggests that felids must have been more efficient predators than most of the extinct species in the dog family.