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Tear gas, any of various chemicals that produce severe eye irritation, usually resulting in a blinding flow of tears and often also minor skin and respiratory irritations, such as itching and coughing. Tear gas is used primarily by police and troops for mob control. The effects of tear gas are temporary and recovery is complete, usually within a few minutes. A gas mask will protect the wearer against tear gas.
Chemical compounds used as tear gases are called lacrimators. Lacrimators, which exist most often in liquid or solid form, are usually dispersed into the air as gases by being exploded from grenades, bombs, or shells. (The liquid or solid lacrimators are vaporized by the heat of the explosion.) Liquid lacrimators, as well as solid lacrimators dissolved in liquids, are sometimes sprayed into the air. The most widely used lacrimator is chloroacetophenone (CN); others include o chlorobenzalmalononitrile( C S )and chloropicrin (PS). Tear gases were widely used during World War I. Tear gases mixed with vomiting gases were used in the Vietnamese War.
Which one is TRUE according to the text?
(A) tear gases were also used during World War II
(B) The effects of tear gas are permanent
(C) tear gas create chemical compounds called lacrimators
(D) chloroacetophenone is one example of lacrimator
(E) tear gases are always mixed with vomiting gases
The effects of tear gas are the following, EXCEPT…
(A) eye irritation
(B) skin cancer
(E) tearful eyes
An autonomous car, also known as uncrewed vehicle, self-driving car, and robotic car is an autonomous vehicle capable of fulfilling the main transportation capabilities of a traditional car. As an autonomous vehicle it is capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input. Robotic cars exist mainly as prototypes and demonstration systems. As of 2014, the only self-driving vehicles that are commercially available are open-air shuttles for pedestrian zones that operate at 20.1 km/h.
Autonomous vehicles sense their surroundings with such techniques as radar, lidar, GPS, and computer vision. Advanced control systems interpret sensory information to identify appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and relevant signage. By definition, autonomous vehicles are capable of updating their maps based on sensory input, allowing the vehicles to keep track of their position even when conditions change or when they enter uncharted environments. S o m e demonstrative systems, precursory to autonomous cars, data back to the 1920s and 30s. The first truly autonomous cars appeared in the 1980s, with Carnegie Mellon University’s Navlab and ALV projects in 1984 and Mercedes-Benz and Eureka Prometheus Project in 1987. Since then, numerous major companies and research organizations have developed working prototype autonomous vehicles.
Which one is WRONG according to the text?
(A) by 2014, there is only one self-driving vehicles that are commercially available
(B) autonomous vehicles have no human drivers
(C) The predecessor of autonomous vehicles had existed since the 1920s
(D) autonomous vehicles may sense their environments and make decisions accordingly
(E) only one organizations have developed autonomous vehicles
You hear about lie detectors all the time in police investigations, and sometimes a person applying for a job will have to undergo a polygraph test. For example, certain government jobs with the FBI or CIA require polygraph tests. The goal of a lie detector is to see if the person is telling the truth or lying when answering certain questions.
When a person takes a polygraph test, four to six sensors are attached to him. A polygraph is a machine in which the multiple ("poly") signals from the sensors are recorded on a single strip of moving paper ("graph"). The sensors usually record: The person’s breathing rate, the person’s pulse, the person’s blood pressure, the person’s perspiration. Sometimes a polygraph will also record things like arm and leg movement.
When the polygraph test starts, the questioner asks three or four simple questions to establish the norms for the person's signals. Then the real questions being tested by the polygraph are asked. Throughout questioning, all of the person's signals are recorded on the moving paper.
Both during and after the test, a polygraph examiner can look at the graphs and can see whether the vital signs changed significantly on any of the questions. In general, a significant change, such as a faster heart rate, higher blood pressure, increased perspiration, indicates that the person is lying.
When a well-trained examiner uses a polygraph, he or she can detect lying with high accuracy. However, because the examiner's interpretation is subjective and because different people react differently to lying, a polygraph test is not perfect and can be fooled.
According to the text, we may know that a person is lying through polygraph from his/her signs below, EXCEPT …
(A) heart rate
(C) blood pressure
(D) facial expression
(E) limb movement
When the polygraph test begins, the examiner asks some simple questions to …
(A) detect whether the test-taker is lying or telling the truth
(B) establish the norms in the society
(C) ensure that the polygraph works
(D) set up the test-taker’s normal signals
(E) record the person’s signals on the moving paper
Which one is WRONG according to the test?
(A) Signals from two lying people can be different from each other
(B) to catch a person’s signals during polygraph, some sensors are implanted under his or her skin
(C) polygraph test is greatly accurate
(D) some people’s lies may be undetected when examined by the polygraph
(E) The interpretation of polygraph test depends on the examiner
Black Death is an epidemic of bubonic plague that appeared in Europe in the 1300’s. The origin of the name is uncertain, it may come from a mistranslation of the Latin atra mors (“terrible death”). The Black Death was the most dreadful plague in the history of Europe. Historians estimate that in three years the plague killed at least one-third of Europe’s population. Its severity was due in part to the people’s low resistance to disease; most suffered from years of malnutrition.
The plague had three main forms. One affected the lungs and led to spitting of blood. Another was marked by large carbuncles on the neck, armpits, and groin. The third form fatally infected the blood. Nearly all stricken people died within three days, many within 12 hours. Rats and fleas carried the disease, the fleas transmitted it to humans. The plague was also transmitted by people who carried the disease in their lungs.
The Black Death probably began in Turkistan before spreading to Europe and Africa. In 1346, the plague appeared at a Black Sea port in the Crimea. The next year traders brought it to Sicily, from where it spread throughout the Italian peninsula. The plague struck France and the British Isles in 1348. By the end of 1350, it had spread to Germany, Scandinavia, and most of the other countries of Europe.
The epidemic led to terror and hysteria among the masses. Jews were accused of poisoning wells, and many were massacred. Some of the people joined a new religious cult, the Flagellants. They believed the plague to be God’s punishment for people’s sins and flogged themselves to win God’s mercy.
The plague reappeared in less violent form three times before the end of the century. Between 1400 and about 1700 it returned many times.
The Black Death hastened the breakup of medieval society. Agriculture came to a near standstill. Production fell, goods became scarce, and prices roses. Many peasants and workers died, laborers became scarce, and wages rose. During the confusion many serfs left the manors to which they were attached. Laws were adopted to freeze wages and prices. Governments tried to force serfs to return to their old manorial bondage. Peasant revolts broke out in England, France, and elsewhere.
Which one is TRUE according to the text?
(A) The plague was transmitted only from rats and fleas that carried the disease
(B) most bubonic sufferers passed away within 12 hours
(C) a bubonic plague sufferers may have large carbuncles on the armpits
(D) The Black Death spread from Europe to Turkistan
(E) Germany had had bubonic plague in 1300
All of the followings are the impacts of the Black Death, EXCEPT …
(A) production level fell
(B) rebellions broke out in England, France and some countries
(C) wages level increased
(D) many Jews are massacred
(E) each year the plague killed at least one-third of Europe’s population
Why was the impact of bubonic plague very severe?
(A) at that time, no one had a cure for the plague
(B) many people had low resistance to disease at that time
(C) because many peasants and workers died suffering from it
(D) because it was God’s punishment for people’s sins
(E) The plague was from Turkistan
Ebola virus is a very dangerous virus. It causes a hemorrhagic fever called Ebola virus disease. “Hemorrhagic” means that the victim will bleed a lot, inside and outside their body. Out of every 10 people who get Ebola, on average five to nine die. There are four kinds of Ebola virus that can cause the disease. The virus was first found in Sudan. It is found in Africa, with very few cases in Europe and the United States.
The Ebola virus that makes people sick lives in the blood and other liquids and wet things in some kinds of non-human animals without killing them. Scientists think the animals it lives in are mainly some kinds of monkeys or fruit bats. When people touch animals that have the virus, or wet things that came out of those animals, they can get sick. Ebola cannot be caught through the air, or by being near sick people. The virus can only go from liquids into people’s bodies. This means Ebola can be caught by touching a sick person’s blood, saliva, mucus, semen, diarrhea, vomit, or other fluids that come out of a sick person’s body.
When people get Ebola the first symptoms look like some other diseases. People get a fever and feel exhausted. Their head, stomach, joints, and throat might hurt. Sometimes, people think they have other diseases like malaria or typhoid fever. Later, people get much sicker. They bleed both inside and outside their bodies. They have blood in their diarrhea and vomit. They bleed from their noses, mouths, and genitals. They got low blood pressure, fast pulse, and low blood circulation to the body. Their organs might stop working.
There is no cure for Ebola, but if people get care quickly from doctors and nurses at a hospital, more of them live. People with Ebola need a lot of fluids to replace fluids lost from diarrhea, vomiting, and bleeding. The most important care is giving them water with a very small amount of salt and sugar in it. This is called oral rehydration. It helps to replace their fluids and blood. It is also important to give medicines in case they get bad blood pressure and blood circulation.
Which of the followings are NOT the symptoms of Ebola disease?
(A) typhoid fever
(B) bleeding inside and outside their bodies
(C) blood in diarrhea
(D) fast pulse
(E) low blood circulation
What will happen if we touch a person’s sweat while the person has Ebola disease?
(A) we may catch the disease
(B) The virus will spread to monkeys or fruit bats
(C) Ebola will kill the person directly
(D) The virus will change into a liquid form
(E) no information stated
Which one is TRUE according to the text?
(A) once a person has Ebola disease, he or she can’t recover from it
(B) some people are immune to Ebola disease
(C) The virus can be transmitted through air
(D) There are more than one type of Ebola virus
(E) caring for Ebola patients involves giving them water that has significant level of salt and sugar
Caffeine is in coffee, tea and other products people consume every day, so why is powdered caffeine dangerous?
On Tuesday (Sept. 1), the Food and Drug Administration announced that it had issued warning letters to five companies that sell powdered caffeine, saying that their products pose a "significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury to consumers.”
Powdered caffeine products are much more potent than caffeine - containing beverages like coffee, and they're dangerous because it is easy for people to consume a lethal amount of powdered caffeine, the FDA said.
Just 1 teaspoon of the caffeine powder contains about the same amount of caffeine as 28 cups of regular coffee, the FDA said. In fact, 2 teaspoons of powdered caffeine would kill most adults, according to the Centers for Science in the Public Interest.
"Powdered caffeine is very concentrated," said Henry Spiller, director of Central Ohio Poison Center at Nationwide Children's Hospital. Most people are so comfortable with the effects of caffeinated beverages like coffee and soda that they don't realize that the amount they ingest is just milligrams, Spiller said.
The amount of caffeine in a teaspoon can vary in different powdered caffeine products, the FDA noted. A teaspoon of some powdered products can have about 5 grams of caffeine; by comparison, a cup of coffee has about 65 to 100 milligrams of caffeine, Spiller said.
At that level, 1 teaspoon of the powder contains as much caffeine as 50 to 75 cups of coffee.
"This is enormous. This is an overdose," Spiller told Live Science.
Another problem with the powdered products is that consumers usually don't have the tools to measure a safe dose. The recommended serving size of powdered caffeine is just 50 milligrams to 200 milligramsor about one-sixteenth of a teaspoon.
To measure out 50 milligrams of powder using a quarter-teaspoon measuring spoon, a consumer needs to fill just 6 percent of the spoon, which "cannot be accurately measured," the FDA said.
"The difference between a safe amount and a toxic dose of caffeine in these pure powdered products is very small," the agency said.
What's more, the smallest packages of powdered caffeine sold by some of the companies contain 100 grams of product, which is 2,000 recommended servings. And some companies sell powdered caffeine in packages of 25 kilograms, which contain up to 500,000 recommended servings.
High doses of caffeine can cause serious side effects, including increased blood pressure, a rapid or dangerously erratic heartbeat, seizures and even death, the FDA said. Two young adults-an 18-year-old in Ohio and a 24-year-old in Georgia-died in 2014 from accidental overdoses of powdered caffeine.
Although it's possible to overdose on caffeine by drinking upward of 50 cups of coffee, most people would probably stop before this point because they would be experiencing uncomfortable effects, like nausea or vomiting and a rapid heart rate, Spiller said. The danger with powdered caffeine is that you take this dose of caffeine all at once, he said.
Below are the side effects of high doses of caffeine, EXCEPT …
(A) rapid and inconsistent heartbeat
(D) increased blood pressure
Which one is NOT TRUE according to the text?
(A) it’s hard to measure safe amount of powdered caffeine to consume
(B) it’s impossible for people to overdose on caffeine by just drinking coffee
(C) there are two death cases because of powdered-caffeine overdose in 2014
(D) The recommended serving size of powdered caffeine is 50 milligrams to 200 milligrams
(E) drinking up to certain amount of coffee can result in uncomfortable effects