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- Latihan Soal
- Passage 1 & No 01
- Passage 2 (No 02)
- No 02
- Passage 3 (No 03)
- No 03
- Passage 4 (No 04)
- No 04
- Passage 5 (No 05)
- No 05
- Passage 6 (No 06-07)
- No 06
- No 07
- Passage 7 (No 08)
- No 08
- Passage 8 (No 09)
- No 09
- Passage 9 (No 10-11)
- No 10
- No 11
- Passage 10 (No 12-13)
- No 12
- No 13
- Passage 11 (No 14)
- No 14
- Passage 12 (No 15)
- No 15
The most popular festival in Japan takes place from 1st-3rd January, and is called Ganjitsu, which means ‘the beginning of the year’. People believe that good or bad luck in the first few days of the year represents the luck you will have for the rest of the year. Ganjitsu is celebrated by ceremonial house cleaning, feasting and by the exchanging of visits and presents. Most people put up special decorations at the entrance to their houses to keep out evil spirits. The main decoration is a sacred rope decorated with ferns, oranges, and lobster. All of these things are thought to bring good fortune, prosperity and long life. Finally, no celebration is complete without mochi cake and zoni soup. Both the cake and the soup are made from traditional recipes.
The topic of the above paragraph is …
(A) popular Japanese celebrations
(B) the Ganjitsu Festival
(C) good and bad luck in Japan
(D) keeping up evil spirits in Japan
(E) Japanese celebrations
Not since Americans crossed the continent in covered wagons have they exercised and dieted as strenuously as they are doing today. Consequently, they do not only look younger and slimmer, but feel better. Because of increased physical fitness, life expectancy in the nation has risen to seventy-three years, with fewer people suffering from heart disease, the nation’s number one killer.
[source: Peterson’s TOEFL]
The main idea is …
(A) Americans got exercise when they crossed the continent in covered wagons
(B) exercise and diet are more widespread in America than ever before
(C) heart disease is the number one killer among Americans
(D) Americans live longer than they did before
(E) obesity in America has declined over the years
Good ideas often start with a really silly question. Bill Bowerman was making breakfast one day. As he stood there making waffle for his son, he wondered what would happen if he poured rubber into his waffle iron. So, he tried it and the result looked something like the bottom of most sport shoes we see today. Still, when he took this idea to several existing shoe companies he was literally laughed at. In fact, every single company turned him down. Though rather disappointed, Bowerman was determined and went on to form his own company, making Nike athletic shoes.
It can be concluded from the text that …
(A) a waffle iron became a tool in making shoes
(B) inventions often occur during breakfast
(C) curiosity can lead to a great invention
(D) Nike shoes are the first sport shoes
(E) many companies are not into athletic shoes
About a billion years after the earth had formed, the first signs of life appeared. Three billion years elapsed before creatures became complex enough to leave fossils their descendants could recognize and learn from. These were shelled creatures called trilobites, followed by jawless fish, the first vertebrates. During the Devonian period, great upheavals occured in the earth’s crust, resulting in the formation of mountains and in the ebb and flow of oceans. In the aftermath, beds of mud rich in organic matter nourished vegetation, and insects, scorpions, and spiders appeared. Next developed the amphibians, descendants of fish that had crawled out of fresh water.
Between 225 and 65 million years ago, reptiles developed from which many new forms grew until finally evolved the mammal. Dinosaurs were overgrown reptiles. Although some were as small as chickens, others grew to be the largest animals on Earth, as long as 82 feet and as heavy as 50 tons, with long necks and a liking for a vegetarian diet. Current theory suggests that dinosaurs were warm-blooded and behaved more like mammals than like reptiles.
The end of the Mesozoic Era (middle life) saw the inexplicable demise of dinosaurs and large swimming and flying birds. Geological changes were converting the giant land mass into separate continents. The beginning of a new era, called Cenozoic (recent life), saw the marked predominance of mammals that would ultimately become man’s ancestors.
[source: Peterson’s TOEFL]
What would be a good title for this reading?
(A) How Reptiles Became Dinosaurs?
(B) The Ages of Man
(C) The Evolution of Life
(D) The Formation of the Earth
(E) How Dinosaurs extinct?
The first people we know created plays were the Ancient Greeks, about the year 500 B.C. They divided plays into two kinds: tragedy and comedy. This division is still used today. The best known Ancient Greek writers of plays are Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and Aristophanes. Some of their plays survived, and are still performed today.
These ancient Greek plays were performed outdoors in large amphitheatres, so that many people could see them. There were contests among the playwrights (people who write plays are called playwrights) and the winner would get a prize.
The Greeks were full of brilliant ideas. They used mechanical devices like trap doors and the machina: a crane for winching gods on and off the stage. They had a Greek chorus that offered information to help the audience follow the performance. The chorus comments on themes, and shows how an audience might react to the drama. The players wore masks. Illustrations on vases show helmet-like masks, covering the entire face and head, with holes for the eyes and a small aperture for the mouth, plus a wig. The mask was to ‘melt’ into the face and allow the actor to vanish into the role. Therefore, onlookers did not think about the actor, but thought about the character.
The main topic of the passage above is …
(A) tragedy and comedy in Ancient Greece
(B) why Ancient Greece excels in art?
(C) history of plays in Ancient Greece
(D) the technology in Ancient Greek theatres
(E) history of art in Ancient Greece
When your parents were growing up, learning to write in cursive was almost as common as learning to read or add. But in recent years, many schools have stopped teaching this flowing form of handwriting, also known as script.
Some people think that writing in cursive is outdated and that learning to type is a more important skill. They argue that most people now spend more time communicating by texting and emailing than they do writing by hand.
But not everyone wants to write off cursive. This fall for the first time in about 15 years, students at Green Primary School in Uniontown, Ohio, will be taught to write in cursive. Some schools in Tennessee and Missouri are also bringing cursive back.
Studies have shown that learning to write in script may improve critical-thinking skills and coordination. Kimberly Brueck is an administrator at Green Primary School. She says her school has another important reason for bringing cursive-writing lessons back into classrooms. “Children need to know how to sign their names!” she says.
The passage tells us about …
(A) why learning cursive is very important?
(B) why learning cursive is no longer important?
(C) some schools that teach children to write in cursive
(D) a study about the effect of writing in cursive
(E) the pros and cons of learning to write in cursive
The main idea of the second paragraph is …
(A) the reason why learning cursive is no longer important
(B) the advance of technology in writing
(C) the effect of writing in cursive
(D) people can write in cursive through texting and emailing
(E) typing in cursive is a more important skill
An investigation into how owls fly and hunt in silence has enabled researchers to develop a prototype coating for wind turbine blades that could significantly reduce the amount of noise they make. Early tests of the material, which mimics the intricate structure of an owl's wing, have demonstrated that it could significantly reduce the amount of noise produced by wind turbines and other types of fan blades, such as those in computers or planes. Since wind turbines are heavily braked in order to minimise noise, the addition of this new surface would mean that they could be run at much higher speeds-producing more energy while making less noise. For an average-sized wind farm, this could mean several additional megawatts worth of electricity.
The text tells us about …
(A) how owls fly and hunt without making a noise?
(B) a new development in wind turbine blade coats to reduce noise
(C) the efficiency of wind turbine blades compared to other sources of energy
(D) how to save the earth with environmentally-friendly wind energy
(E) producing more energy in wind turbines
The morning on August 14TH 2015, the silence in Nagasaki was broken only by a tolling bell. The Japanese city has marked 70 years since the dropping of the last atomic bomb on a civilian target in the closing days of World War II.
The memorial ceremony held at the Nagasaki Peace Park took place right under where the bomb exploded at 11:02 on August 9TH of 1945. Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said he was renewing his vows to push more nuclear disarmament.
“As the world’s only country to have experienced an atomic bomb during a war and in adherence to our three non-nuclear principles, I have renewed our vows to lead the world in the effort towards nuclear disarmament in order to achieve a world without nuclear weapons.”
The US dropped atomic bomb nicknamed “Fat Man” on Nagasaki three days after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. More than 150,000 died in the attack and from the subsequent radiation sickness. Japan surrendered six days later, ending World War II.
Which is the most suitable title for the passage?
(A) The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
(B) Shinzo Abe’s Nuclear Disarmament Plans
(C) The Impact of Nagasaki Atomic Bombing on Civilians
(D) Japan, After World War II
(E) Commemorating Nagasaki Atomic Bombing
Birds soon might not be the only ones tweeting in our national parks. Before long, Wi-Fi service may be available in some parks for the first time. Having Wi-Fi would enable park visitors to use their smartphones to connect to the Internet or to text or call their friends.
Cell service is extremely limited in many parks, according to the National Park Service. Someone who takes a selfie in a park often has to leave the park before sharing it with friends on sites like Twitter or Instagram. People in favor of adding Wi-Fi say it will help attract younger people to the parks.
But some people are concerned that having Wi-Fi will distract visitors from the natural beauty of the parks. David Smith is the superintendent of Joshua Tree National Park in California. He thinks national parks should add Wi-Fi only to some areas, like the visitor centers. He wants visitors to be able to enjoy the scenery without hearing cell phones ringing. “One of the neatest things about visiting a park is the chance to get away from a lot of the distractions that interfere in our normal lives,” he says.
The text tells us about …
(A) arguments for and against installing Wi-Fi in the national parks
(B) why having Wi-Fi in national parks is considered negative
(C) why having Wi-Fi in national parks is important to attract younger people to the park
(D) technology can distract people from the nature
(E) distractions usually interfere in our normal life
The best title for the text is …
(A) Wi-Fi: Advantages and Disadvantages
(B) The Younger and Older People Debate about Installing Wi-Fi in Our National Parks
(C) Younger People Tweet in National Parks
(D) Tweeting from Our National Parks Becomes Reality
(E) Wi-Fi in National Parks: Yes or No?
Ebola virus is a very dangerous virus. It causes a hemorrhagic fever called Ebola virus disease. “Hemorrhagic” means that the victim will bleed a lot, inside and outside their body. Out of every 10 people who get Ebola, on average five to nine die. There are four kinds of Ebola virus that can cause the disease. The virus was first found in Sudan. It is found in Africa, with very few cases in Europe and the United States.
The Ebola virus that makes people sick lives in the blood and other liquids and wet things in some kinds of non-human animals without killing them. Scientists think the animals it lives in are mainly some kinds of monkeys or fruit bats. When people touch animals that have the virus, or wet things that came out of those animals, they can get sick. Ebola cannot be caught through the air, or by being near sick people. The virus can only go from liquids into people’s bodies. This means Ebola can be caught by touching a sick person’s blood, saliva, mucus, semen, diarrhea, vomit, or other fluids that come out of a sick person’s body.
When people get Ebola the first symptoms look like some other diseases. People get a fever and feel very tired. Their head, stomach, joints, and throat might hurt. Sometimes, people think they have other diseases like malaria or typhoid fever. Later, people get much sicker. They bleed both inside and outside their bodies. They have blood in their diarrhea and vomit. They bleed from their noses, mouths, and genitals. They got low blood pressure, fast pulse, and low blood circulation to the body. Their organs might stop working.
There is no cure for Ebola, but if people get care quickly from doctors and nurses at a hospital, more of them live. People with Ebola need a lot of fluids to replace fluids lost from diarrhea, vomiting, and bleeding. The most important care is giving them water with a very small amount of salt and sugar in it. This is called oral rehydration. It helps to replace their fluids and blood. It is also important to give medicines in case they get bad blood pressure and blood circulation.
What is the best title for the passage?
(A) Why Ebola Virus Spreads
(B) How to Prevent Ebola Disease
(C) Ebola Disease
(D) The History of Ebola Virus
(E) Is There a Cure for Ebola Disease?
What is the topic of paragraph 1?
(A) symptoms of Ebola
(B) the definition of Ebola
(C) the Spread of Ebola Virus
(D) how to prevent Ebola?
(E) the background information about Ebola Virus
Caffeine is in coffee, tea and other products people consume every day, so why is powdered caffeine dangerous?
On Tuesday (Sept. 1), the Food and Drug Administration announced that it had issued warning letters to five companies that sell powdered caffeine, saying that their products pose a "significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury to consumers.”
Powdered caffeine products are much more potent than caffeine-containing beverages like coffee, and they're dangerous because it is easy for people to consume a lethal amount of powdered caffeine, the FDA said.
Just 1 teaspoon of the caffeine powder contains about the same amount of caffeine as 28 cups of regular coffee, the FDA said. In fact, 2 teaspoons of powdered caffeine would kill most adults, according to the Centers for Science in the Public Interest.
"Powdered caffeine is very concentrated," said Henry Spiller, director of Central Ohio Poison Center at Nationwide Children's Hospital. Most people are so comfortable with the effects of caffeinated beverages like coffee and soda that they don't realize that the amount they ingest is just milligrams, Spiller said.
The amount of caffeine in a teaspoon can vary in different powdered caffeine products, the FDA noted. A teaspoon of some powdered products can have about 5 grams of caffeine, by comparison, a cup of coffee has about 65 to 100 milligrams of caffeine, Spiller said.
At that level, 1 teaspoon of the powder contains as much caffeine as 50 to 75 cups of coffee.
"This is enormous. This is an overdose," Spiller told Live Science.
Another problem with the powdered products is that consumers usually don't have the tools to measure a safe dose. The recommended serving size of powdered caffeine is just 50 milligrams to 200 milligrams-or about one-sixteenth of a teaspoon.
To measure out 50 milligrams of powder using a quarter-teaspoon measuring spoon, a consumer needs to fill just 6 percent of the spoon, which "cannot be accurately measured," the FDA said.
"The difference between a safe amount and a toxic dose of caffeine in these pure powdered products is very small," the agency said.
What's more, the smallest packages of powdered caffeine sold by some of the companies contain 100 grams of product, which is 2,000 recommended servings. And some companies sell powdered caffeine in packages of 25 kilograms, which contain up to 500,000 recommended servings.
High doses of caffeine can cause serious side effects, including increased blood pressure, a rapid or dangerously erratic heartbeat, seizures and even death, the FDA said. Two young adults-an 18-year-old in Ohio and a 24-year-old in Georgia-died in 2014 from accidental overdoses of powdered caffeine.
Although it's possible to overdose on caffeine by drinking upward of 50 cups of coffee, most people would probably stop before this point because they would be experiencing uncomfortable effects, like nausea or vomiting and a rapid heart rate, Spiller said. The danger with powdered caffeine is that you take this dose of caffeine all at once, he said.
The passage mainly tells us that …
(A) coffee is dangerous to our health
(B) caffeineintake should be controlled
(C) we should avoid caffeine
(D) some powdered caffeine products are toxic to our health
(E) companies should stop selling powdered caffeine
Competition played a more important role in the evolution of the dog family (wolves, foxes, and their relatives) than climate change, shows a new international study published in PNAS.
An international team including scientist from the Universities of Gothenburg (Sweden), Sao Paulo (Brazil), and Lausanne (Switzerland) analyzed over 2000 fossils and revealed that the arrival of felids-a mammal of cat family-to North America from Asia had a deadly impact on the diversity of the dog family, contributing to the extinction of as many as 40 of their species.
“We usually expect climate changes to play an overwhelming role in the evolution of biodiversity. Instead, competition among different carnivore species proved to be even more important for canids, a mammal of dog family” says leading author Daniele Silvestro at the Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
The dog family originated in North America about 40 million of years ago and reached a maximum diversity around 22 million of years ago, when more than 30 species inhabited the continent. Today, only 9 species of the dog family live in North America. They progressively increased in body size and specialized into becoming large predators. Some of them exceeded 30 kg and were among the largest carnivores on the North American continent. Although several large carnivores today face a higher extinction risk than smaller species, the authors of the study found no evidence of a similar pattern in ancient canid species.
The evolutionary success of carnivorous animals is inevitably linked to their ability to obtain food. The limited amount of resources (preys) imposes strong competition among carnivores sharing the same geographic range. For instance African carnivores such as wild dogs, hyenas, lions, and other felids are constantly competing with each other for food. North American carnivores in the past might have followed similar dynamics and much of the competition is found among species of the dog family and from ancient felids and dogs. Interestingly, while felids appeared to have strongly negative impact on the survival of ancient dogs, the opposite is not true. This suggests that felids must have been more efficient predators than most of the extinct species in the dog family.
The text tells us that …
(A) Cats can actually beat dogs
(B) competition has exterminated the ancient dog family
(C) Dogs are not as competitive as cats
(D) the diversity of the dog family now were caused only by ancient competition from cat family
(E) competition from cats drove extinction of many species of ancient dogs