- Latihan Soal
A Spanish researcher and a Paraguayan scientist have presented the most complete and detailed European study into the repertoire of sounds used by bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to communicate. The study reveals the complexity and our lack of understanding about the communication of these marine mammals.
Until now, the scientific community had thought that whistles were the main sounds made by these mammals, and were unaware of the importance and use of burst-pulsed sounds. Researchers from the Bottlenose Dolphin Research Institute (BDRI), based in Sardinia (Italy) have now shown that these sounds are vital to the animals' social life and mirror their behaviour.
"Burst-pulsed sounds are used in the life of bottlenose dolphins to socialise and maintain their position in the social hierarchy in order to prevent physical conflict, and this also represents a significant energy saving," Bruno Diaz, lead author of the study and a researcher at the BDRI, which he also manages, said.
According to Diaz, bottlenose dolphins make longer burst-pulsed sounds when they are hunting and at times of high aggression: "These are what can be heard best and over the longest period of time," and make it possible for each individual to maintain its position in the hierarchy.
The dolphins emit these strident sounds when in the presence of other individuals moving towards the same prey. The "least dominant" one soon moves away in order to avoid confrontation. "The surprising thing about these sounds is that they have a high level of uni-directionality, unlike human sounds. One dolphin can send a sound to another that it sees as a competitor, and this one clearly knows it is being addressed," explains the Spanish scientist.
It can be inferred from the text that ...
(A) producing sounds requires a lot of energy
(B) whistles are more complicated than burst-pulsed sounds
(C) mother dolphins cannot make burst-pulsed
(D) bottlenose dolphins avoid physical frictions
(E) hierarchy is not vital for bottlenose dolphins
The word ‘these’ in “These are what can be heard ... “ refers to
(B) high aggression
(C) hunting dolphins
(D) other individuals
(E) burst-pulse sounds
The paragraph following the text most probably discusses ...
(A) dolphin’s most favourite preys
(B) least dominant dolphin’s eating habits
(C) another kind of sounds made by dolphins
(D) the characteristics of burst-pulsed sounds
(E) hunting dolphin’s use of sounds to communicate
In organizing ideas in the text the writer ...
(A) lists reasons why scientists were unaware of burst-pulsed sounds
(B) explains how different sounds are used by bottlenose dolphins
(C) compares similarities between burst-pulsed sounds with whistles
(D) describes the unique characteristics of bottlenose dolphins
(E) present examples of bottlenose dolphins’ sounds
Which of the following most likely restates the gist of paragraph 2?
(A) bottlenose dolphins are effective communicators
(B) burst-pulsed sounds are used by all kinds of dolphins
(C) burst-pulsed sounds are vital for bottlenose dolphins
(D) whistles and burst-pulsed sounds are interchangeable
(E) whistles are vital for bottlenose dolphins to communicate
Did you ride your bike to school when you were a kid? A generation ago most kids rode, walked or caught the bus to school; very few of us were dropped off by our parents at the school gate. These days most of us have experienced the daily traffic jams around schools at drop-off and pick-up times, as parents drive their children to the school gate. While there is no national data on the number of children who walk or ride to school, a recent Victorian survey found nearly half of all children are driven to school every day.
Parents choose to drop their kids at school for a number of reasons – mostly to do with safety and convenience. But experts say chauffeuring your kids to school every day could mean they are missing out on much-needed exercise and other life skills.
Research suggests at least a third of Australian children aged 9-16 years are not getting the amount of daily physical activity recommended in national guidelines. But this is not because children's participation in leisure or sporting activities has dropped off, says Dr Jan Garrard. Participation in these activities has not altered much over the years, Garrard says but what has changed is the level of incidental activity children do. "When you look at countries where children are just active as part of everyday life, they do not have to be sporty, all they have to do is to get around the way the community gets around by walking and cycling, and they get enough physical activity," she says.
The author develops some ideas in paragraph 2 by ...
(A) describing parents’ chauffeuring followed by its effects
(B) explaining reasons for chauffeuring and their advantages
(C) discussing the function of chauffeuring and the impacts
(D) arguing for chauffeuring practices for children’s safety
(E) exposing how parents chauffeur and its draw backs
By writing the sentence “... chauffeuring your kids to school every day could mean they are missing out on much-needed exercise and other life skills.” (paragraph 2, line 2-3). the author implies that ...
(A) taking kids to school makes them deprived individuals when they grow up
(B) kids given a lift to school likely lose vital social and physical advantages
(C) schooling means not only learning in classes but also socializing with others
(D) parents spoil their kids’ future social and physical life by giving them a lift
(E) when a child needs physical and social training, parents should facilitate them
Dr. Garrard’s statement “... where children are just active as part of everyday life, they do not have to be sporty ...” (paragraph 3 line 5) may be best restated that ...
(A) children who are active do not automatically mean they will be good at sport
(B) being muscular should not be the aim of children who are naturally active
(C) children’s physical fitness is not closely related with their daily activities
(D) activeness in children does not mean to make these children physically fit
(E) when naturally active, children need no more scheduled sports activities
The part following the passage above most likely contains information on ...
(A) advice to parents for their children to have enough physical activities
(B) the decreasing trend of children to do physical activities at their will
(C) parental motives behind chauffeuring their children to school
(D) reasons for children not to do fun and incidental activities
(E) effects of having children not to be given a lift to school
What is happening in Egypt is the latest example of the interplay between democracy, protest and government efficacy. Democracy is a way of deciding the decision-makers, but it is not a substitute for making the decision. I remember an early conversation with some young Egyptians shortly after President Mubarak's downfall. They believed that, with democracy, problems would be solved. When I probed on the right economic policy for Egypt, they simply said that it would all be fine because now they had democracy; chance of working.
I am a strong supporter of democracy. But democratic government does not on its own mean effective government. Today, efficacy is the challenge. When governments do not deliver, people protest, as Turkey and Brazil show, they can protest even when, on any objective basis, countries have made huge progress. But as countries move from low to middle income status, the people's expectations rise. They want quality services, better housing, good infrastructure, especially transport.
This is a sort of free democratic spirit that operates outside the convention of democracy that elections decide the government. It is enormously fuelled by social media, itself a revolutionary phenomenon. And it moves very fast in precipitating crisis. It is not always consistent or rational. A protest is not a policy, or a placard a programme for government. But if governments don't have a clear argument with which to rebut the protest, they're in trouble.
In Egypt, the government's problems were compounded by resentment at the ideology and intolerance of the Muslim Brotherhood. Across the Middle East, for the first time, and this is a positive development, there is open debate about the role of religion in politics. Despite the Muslim Brotherhood's superior organisation, there is probably a majority for an intrinsically secular approach to government in the region.
Society can be deeply imbued with religious observance, but people are starting to realise that democracy only works as a pluralistic concept where faiths are respected and where religion has a voice, not a veto. For Egypt, a nation with an immense and varied civilisation, around 8 million Christians and a young population who need to be connected to the world, there isn't really a future as an Islamic state that aspires to be part of a regional caliphate.
Which of the following is TRUE according to the text?
(A) Muslim Brotherhood insists to replace secular government Into Islamic one
(B) The author perceives negatively the current political trend In Egypt
(C) Egypt Is the largest country in the Middle East
(D) Egyptian society do not like mixing religion and politics
(E) Religion’s role is important in democracy to voice the truth
The purpose of the text is to ...
(A) Inform readers about democracy In Egypt
(B) describe the system of democracy In Egypt
(C) tell readers about the government problems In Egypt
(D) publicize conditions of Egypt after Mubarak’s downfall
(E) give a suggestion of how democracy can work in Egypt
In which paragraph does the author mention that democracy does not correlate with the government efficacy?
Which of the following can best replace the word “rebut” (paragraph 3, last sentence)?
(E) calm down
What can be inferred from paragraph 2?
(A) government efficacy is more important than democracy
(B) democracy does not guarantee for wealth to occur
(C) there are no people protests in poor countries
(D) there is no democracy when there is no protest
(E) democracy means to serve the people
Which of the following best describes the organization of the text?
(A) a criticism of the effect of democracy in Egypt
(B) an explanation of problems of democracy in Egypt
(C) an example of the interplay between democracy, protest, and government efficacy
(D) a comparison between democracy in Egypt and in other countries
(E) a description of what democracy is in the middle East